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Conversations,’ &c., 12mo, London, 1849, new edition, revised and enlarged, under the title of ‘The Universal Love of God and Responsibility of Man,’ &c., 12mo, London, 1861; ‘Light for the Sick Room: a Book for the Afflicted,’ 12mo, London, 1850; ‘Light for the House of Mourning: a Book for the Bereaved,’ 12mo, London, 1850; ‘The various Forms of Religion,’ 12mo, London, 1851; ‘The Marriage Gift Book and Bridal Token,’ 8vo, London, 1863; ‘A Retrospect of Forty-five Years' Christian Ministry: Public Work in other Spheres of Benevolent Labour, and Tours in various Lands, with Papers on Theological and other Subjects in Prose and Verse,’ 8vo, London, 1875; and several works for the young.

[Perthshire Advertiser, 4 Feb. 1876; the Baptist, the Freeman, and the Christian World, 4 and 11 Feb. 1876; Burns's Retrospect of Forty-five Years' Christian Ministry, 1875; and an article entitled The Late Rev. Dr. Jabez Burns—Life and Labours, contributed by the Rev. Dawson Burns to the Baptist Magazine, March 1876, and reproduced in the Baptist Handbook, 1877.]

A. H. G.

BURNS, JAMES (17th cent.), author of the ‘Memoirs of the Civil War and during the Usurpation from 1644 to 1661,’ was born at the commencement of the seventeenth century. He was a merchant in Glasgow, and for some time bailie of that city. Little is known of his history, but he is supposed to be the son of one Robert Burns, who is mentioned in m'Ure's ‘History of Glasgow,’ and whose name appears in the ‘List of Linen and Woollen Drapers, commonly called English Merchants, since the year 1600.’ The manuscript of his ‘Memoirs’ is lost, but there is a transcript of them, which is evidently much mutilated, by George Crawford, historian of Renfrewshire. The ‘Memoirs’ are filled with detailed accounts of the incidents which befell the nobility of Scotland during the stormy period of which they treat.

[Stevenson's Historical Fragments relative to Scottish Affairs from 1635 to 1664, 1833.]

N. G.

BURNS, JAMES (1789–1871), shipowner, third son of Rev. John Burns, minister of the Barony parish, Glasgow, and brother of the surgeons John and Allan Burns [q. v.], was born on 9 June 1789. Entering into business as a shipowner with his brother, George Burns, he, along with him, began in 1824 to employ steam navigation. Six years later they formed a connection with the MacIvars of Liverpool, and in 1839 their business was extended by the formation of the famous Cunard Company for the establishment of a line of ocean steamers. The company included Messrs. Cunard and MacIvar, and the first ocean steamer sailed from Liverpool on 4 July 1840. Latterly James Burns retired from the business to his estate of Bloomhall, Dumbartonshire, where he carried out as a landed proprietor a system of enlightened improvements. He was a liberal supporter of religious and philanthropic enterprises. He died on 6 Sept. 1871, and was succeeded in his estates by his only son, John William Burns.

[Glasgow Herald, 8 Sept. 1871; Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry, p. 220.]

T. F. H.

BURNS, JAMES DRUMMOND (1823–1864), presbyterian minister and poet, was born in Edinburgh 18 Feb. 1823, and educated on the charitable foundation of Heriot's Hospital. He and two other lads got through the prescribed curriculum two years before the usual time of leaving; whereupon the governor sent them to the rector's (Dr. Carson's [q. v.]) class at the high school, a thing never done before. His early religious impressions were given to him at the New Greyfriars church, of which Daniel Wilkie was minister. In November 1837 he entered the arts classes at the Edinburgh university as a Heriot bursar; he owed much to the influence of the moral philosophy lectures of John Wilson (‘Christopher North’). In November 1841 he proceeded to the divinity classes under Chalmers and David Welsh, and followed them in 1843 to the new divinity hall established by the Free church. Early in 1845 Chalmers sent him to preach at the Free church, Dunblane; though he stuck in the morning sermon, he was at once called by the congregation, and was ordained at Dunblane in August. Overwork soon brought on an alarming attack in the right lung, and he was advised to winter in Madeira. He was appointed to the congregation at Funchal under the Free church colonial mission, and landed 21 Sept. 1847. His diary of this period, though chiefly occupied with devotional and theological matter, gives interesting glimpses of a poetic nature. He left Madeira 27 May and arrived at Broadstairs 11 June 1848. Under medical advice he was induced to return, with a view to take permanent charge of the presbyterian congregation at Funchal. Set free from Dunblane on 4 Oct. he sailed again on 6 Oct. and arrived on 1 Nov. But his stay was not lasting. Owing to the failure of the vintage and the diminished influx of invalids, his congregation fell off. In the summer of 1853 he left Madeira considerably improved in health. After preaching at Brighton and St. Heliers, he settled (on 22 May 1855) with the newly formed presbyterian congrega-