Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 07.djvu/456

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

Cross,' and in 1812 he published an overture (op. 8) which had been performed at the vocal concerts Hanover Square This was followed in 1817 by a similar work (op. 13) produced by the Philharmonic Society which Burrowes was one of the original members. In 1818 appeared the first edition his 'Pianoforte Primer' a little work which was very successful and is still in use as an instruction book. In 1819 Burrowes brought out a 'Thorough Bass Primer' which achieved a success equal to that of the earlier work. In the course of his long career he also published a 'Companion to the Pianoforte Primer' (1826), a 'Companion to the Thorough Bass Primer' (1832), 'The Tutor's Assistant for the Pianoforte' (1834), a 'Guide to Practice on the Pianoforte' (1841), collections of psalm tunes preludes dances Scotch and Irish airs sonatas a trio for three flutes songs and many arrangements of operas &c for the pianoforte. For nearly forty years Burrowes was organist of St James's Piccadilly About 1834 he settled at 13 Nottingham Place where he died after a long and painful illness 31 March 1852.

[Grove's Dict. of Music, i. 285 a; Musical World, 24 April 1852; Gent Mag 1852, i.; British Museum Music Catalogue.]

W. B. S.

BURROWES, PETER (1753–1841), Irish barrister and politician, was born at Portarlington in 1753. At Trinity College, Dublin, which he entered in 1774, he specially distinguished himself in the debates of the Historical Society. While still a student at the Middle Temple, in 1784, he published a pamphlet on 'Catholic Emancipation,' which introduced him to the notice of Flood and the other leading Irish patriots. In the following year he was called to the bar, where he rapidly acquired a good practice. In 1790, along with Wolfe Tone and others, he founded a society in Dublin for the discussion of literary and political subjects. In a duel which he fought at Kilkenny in 1794 with the Hon. Somerset Butler, his life was only saved by the ball striking against some coppers which he happened to have in his waistcoat pocket. Though he did not share in t he more extreme vie ws of the United Irishmen, he was a zealous supporter of all the most important measures of reform. Along with thirteen other king's counsel he, 9 Dec. 1798, protested against the proposals for a union with Great Britain, and after being elected member for Enniscorthy he continued, as long as the Irish parliament existed, persistently to oppose the measure. In 1803 he acted as the counsel of Robert Emmet, and in 1811 he was employed to defend the catholic delegates. In 1821 he was appointed judge of the insolvent debtors court. He died in London in 1841, and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery.

[W. Burrowes's Select Speeches of Peter Burrowes, with Memoir, 1850; Life and Adventures of Wolfe Tone.]

T. F. H.

BURROWS, GEORGE MAN (1771–1846), physician, was born at Chalk, near Gravesend, in 1771. He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, was apprenticed to an apothecary at Rochester, and completed his medical education at Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals. After qualifying at the College of Surgeons and Apothecaries' Hall, he entered on general practice in London. He became deeply interested in the legal status of the medical profession, and organised the Association of Surgeon-Apothecaries of England and Wales, with the object of improving the education and status of the profession. As chairman of this body Burrows was most indefatigable, and had a large share in the movement which led to the passing of the Apothecaries' Act in 1815. The society voted him five hundred guineas on its dissolution. On the formation of the first court of examiners of the Apothecaries' Company, on the passing of the act, Burrows was appointed an examiner; but early in 1817 he resigned, owing to the unfair conduct of the court of assistants. On this question Burrows published a 'Statement of Circumstances connected with the Apothecaries' Act and its Administration,' 1817. At this time he was largely engaged in medical literature, being one of the founders and editors of the 'London Medical Repository,' which commenced in January 1814, and the author of 'Observations on the Comparative Mortality of London and Paris,' 1815. In 1816 he retired from general practice, and devoted himself to the treatment of insane patients, at first keeping a small asylum at Chelsea, and later, in 1823, establishing a larger one, 'The Retreat,' at Clapham. He became a leading authority on insanity, publishing 'Cursory Remarks on Legislative Regulation of the Insane,' 1819; 'An Inquiry into certain Errors relative to Insanity and their Consequences, Physical, Moral, and Civil,' 1820; and finally, an extended treatise entitled ' Commentaries on the Causes, Forms. Symptoms, and Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity,' 1828. This was by far the most complete and practical treatise then published in this country, and received general approval. Burrows became M.D. at St . Andrews in 1824, and a fellow of the College