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the Louvre in Paris ; and there are some fine pieces of grotesque at Petworth. The grotesques and other ornaments in these works, a line in which Clein appears to have been unrivalled, have always oeen greatly admired, and some modern authorities have had no hesitation in ascribing them to the hand of Vandyck or some more famous painter, ignoring the fact that Clein was spoken of at the time as a second Titian, and as 'il famosissimo pittore, miracolo del secolo.' Clein was also largely employed by the nobility to decorate their mansions. Samples of his work in this line were to be seen at Somerset House, Carew House, Parson's Green, Hanworth Palace, Wimbledon House, Stone Park, Northamptonshire, Bolsover Castle, and the Gilt Room at Holland House. With the civil war there came a check to Clein's prosperity, and we find him chiefly employed in etching and designing illustrations for books ; in 1632 he had already provided the illustrations (engraved by P. Lombart and S. Savery) to Sandys's edition of Ovid's 'Metamorphoses,' of which an edition was published in Paris in 1637. He designed the illustrations, ornamental head-pieces, &c., to the editions of the classics published by Ogilby [q. v.], viz. 'Æsop's Fables' (1651), 'Virgil' (English edition, 1654, Latin 1658), and 'Homer,' (1660). His designs were engraved by P. Lombart, W. Faithorne, and W. Hollar, and were so much admired that the king of France had those for Virgil copied in a special edition of his own. Clein etched title-pages for E. Montagu's 'Lacrymæ Musarum' (1650), Thomas Fuller's 'A Pisgah-sight of Palestine' (1650), a frontispiece to 'Lysis, or the Extravagant Shepherd,' and perhaps the etchings in the 1654 and 1660 editions of that work. He published in the form of grotesques some sets of original etchings, viz. 'Septem Liberates Artes' (1645), 'Varii Zophori Figuris Animalium ornati' (1645), 'Quinque Sensuum Descriptio' (1646) ; and a friend and contemporary artist, a Mr. English, etched some grotesques (1654), and a humorous piece from Clein's designs. There are other etchings in the print room at the British Museum, attributed with great probability to Clein. Although he retained his house at Mortlake, he resided for some time in Covent Garden, and died in London in 1658 at an advanced age. He left three sons, Francis, John (both mentioned above), and Charles, and three daughters, Sarah, Magdalen, and Penelope. Francis Clein, the younger, was born in 1625, and was buried at Covent Garden 21 Oct. 1650. With his brother John he followed his father's profession, and they both attained repute as draughtsmen and miniature painters. It is difficult to distinguish their work from that of their father. A series of drawings of the cartoons of Raphael were found at Kensington Palace ; they bear the dates 1640-1646, are executed on a large scale, and highly finished; some are signed by John Clein, and were evidently executed by him and his brother at Mortlake. They were seen by Evelyn, who states that the brothers were then both dead. Penelope Clein appears to have been also a miniature painter, and to her have been ascribed two miniatures of Cecil, lord Roos (1677), and Dorothea, daughter of Richard Cromwell (1668), signed P.C. A portrait of Clein was engraved by Chambers for Walpole's 'Anecdotes,' and Mr. English had a picture of Clein and his family, which was afterwards in the possession of Mr. Crawley at Hempsted, Hertfordshire ; there also seems to have been in existence a portrait of Clein and his family by candlelight. Evelyn describes Clein as a 'most pious man.'

[Redgrave's Dict. of English Artists; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and Wornum ; Granger's Biog. Hist. of England ; Nagler's Künstler-Lexikon ; Nagler's Monogrammisten ; Dansk Konstner-Lexikon ; Evelyn's Sculptura; Gent. Mag. (1787), lvii. 853-5; Scharf's Royal Galleries ; Ruland's Notes on Raphael's Cartoons ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Ser. (1627) ; Lysons's Environs of London ; Manning and Bray's History of Surrey; Andresen's Handbuch fur Kupferstichsammler ; Guiffrey's Van Dyck ; Guiffrey's Histoire de la Tapisserie ; Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xviii. ; Fuller's Worthies (1811), ii.]

L. C.

CLELAND, JAMES (1770–1840), statistician, was a native of Glasgow, and began life as a cabinet-maker, but having migrated to London, obtained in 1814 the post of superintendent of public works. In 1819 he was employed by the municipal authorities of Glasgow in taking a census of that town, the first ever taken in the United Kingdom. He was similarly employed in 1821 and 1831. He published : 1. 'Annals of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1816, 8vo. 2. 'Rise and Progress of the City of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1820, 8vo. 3. 'Enumeration of the Inhabitants of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1832, fol. 4. 'Historical Account of Bills of Mortality of the Probability of Human Life in Glasgow and other large towns,' Glasgow, 1836, 8vo. 5. 'Description of the Banquet in honour of the Right Honourable Sir R. Peel, Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow, 13 Jan. 1837,' Glasgow, 1837, 4to. 6. 'Description of the City of Glasgow,' Glasgow, 1843, 8vo.