Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 11.djvu/409

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Sinclair's 'Code of Health and Longevity,' Edinburgh, 1806, 8vo, a translation of Kant's treatise on the power of the mind in overcoming unpleasant sensations by mere resolution. He also published a translation of Wienholt's 'Seven Lectures on Somnambulism,' with a preface, introduction, and notes, Edinburgh, 1845, 8vo.

[Fraser's Chiefs of Colquhoun; Brit. Mus. Cat]

J. M. R.

COLQUHOUN, JOHN CAMPBELL (1803–1870), miscellaneous writer, was born in Edinburgh on 23 Jan. 1803, and educated at the high school, Edinburgh, and at Oriel College, Oxford. In 1832 he was elected member for Dumbartonshire, and in 1837 for the Kilmarnock burghs. He unsuccessfully contested the Kilmarnock burghs in July 1841, but was elected in July 1842 one of the members for Newcastle-under-Lyme, which he continued to represent till the dissolution of 1847, when he retired from reasons of health. He was chairman of the general committee of the National Club, of the Church of England Education Society, and of the Irish Church Mission to Roman Catholics. Besides a number of political and religious pamphlets upon questions of the day in Scotland and Ireland, he was the author of 'Short Sketches of some Notable Lives,' 1855; 'Life in Italy and France in the Olden Time,' 1858; 'Scattered Leaves of Biography,' 1864; 'William Wilberforce, his Friends and his Times,' 1866, 2nd edit. 1867; and 'Memorials of Henrietta Maria Colquhoun,' 1870. He died 17 April 1870.

[Men of the Time, 7th ed.; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

T. F. H.

COLQUHOUN, PATRICK, LL.D. (1745–1820), metropolitan police magistrate, was born on 14 March 1745 at Dumbarton, and received his early education at the grammar school there. His father was registrar of the records of Dumbartonshire. Before he was sixteen he proceeded to Virginia, where he engaged in commercial pursuits, in which he continued with marked success on returning to Scotland in 1766, when he settled in Glasgow. In 1778, during the excitement caused by the war of the American Revolution, he was one of the twelve principal contributors to the local fund for raising the Glasgow regiment, afterwards the 83rd of the line. In 1779-82 he paid several visits to London, to urge on the government legislative measures favourable to the industries of Glasgow and Scotland. He was so successful there, and in initiating schemes of local improvement, that in 1782 he was elected, and in 1783 re-elected, lord provost of Glasgow, in the latter year founding the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, of which he was appointed chairman. In 1785-9 he was again indefatigable, and often successful, in his exertions to procure administrative and legislative measures beneficial to the trade and commerce of Glasgow and to the British cotton manufactures generally, visiting Manchester to obtain information, which he embodied in a statement presented to Pitt, showing the condition of the cotton trade in 1788. In a visit which he paid in 1789 to Flanders and Brabant he is said to have made known on the continent the merits of the Lanarkshire and other British muslins. He published during this period a number of pamphlets none of them, apparently, are in the library of the British Museum in aid of his personal efforts. His zeal and success procured him formal expressions of thanks from the Lanarkshire and Lancashire manufacturers, and the title, since bestowed on him, of 'father of Glasgow' (Cleland, i. 177 n.)

In 1789, for some unexplained reason, Colquhoun removed with his family to London, and in 1792, when its police system was partially reconstructed, he was appointed, through the influence of Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville, one of the new justices. In 1794 he published anonymously a pamphlet previously printed for private circulation, 'Observations and Facts relative to Public-houses, by a Magistrate acting for the Counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, and Essex.' It contains curious particulars of the London liquor trade of the time. In 1794 appeared his pamphlet, 'A Plan for affording extensive Relief to the Poor, by raising a moderate sum of money by subscription, to be laid out in redeeming pledges of honest, industrious families, who have been compelled to pledge their goods and working-tools for subsistence during the late severe weather,' and in 1796 (Pettigrew, ii. 356) he established a society to carry out that object. In 1795, when political discontent was aggravated by the high price of food, he aided in establishing the soup-kitchen in Spitalfields, which was the first of its kind, publishing in that year two pamphlets, ' An Account of the Meat and Soup Charity,' and 'Suggestions … showing how a Small Income may be made to go far, … so as to produce a Considerable Saving in the article of Bread,' which were printed at the public expense neither of which is in the library of the British Museum. In the same year appeared the work by which Colquhoun is chiefly known, his 'Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis,