ordination is not known. On 1 July 1661 he was appointed tenth minor canon of St. Paul's Cathedral, in 1675 he became sixth minor canon, on 30 May 1682 was admitted senior cardinal, and on 24 Nov. of the same year sacrist. He was for some years curate of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, a post he seems to have resigned before September 1695, in which month he was succeeded by Charles Green. He was also chaplain to the Society of Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street. In 1663 Clifford published the first edition of the work by which he is best known, ‘Divine Services and Anthems, usually sung in the Cathedrals and Collegiate Choires in the Church of England.’ This is a collection of words of anthems, and was originally intended only for use at St. Paul's, but in 1664 Clifford published a second edition, with large additions, so as to apply to ‘all choires in England and Ireland.’ The work contains the words of 393 anthems, besides tunes of chants, &c., ‘Brief Directions for the understanding of that part of the Divine Service performed by the Organ in St. Paul's Cathedral on Sundayes;’ a ‘Scale or Basis of Musick,’ by Dr. Ralph Winterton, regius professor of medicine at Cambridge, and a ‘Psalm of Thanksgiving,’ sung by the children of Christ's Hospital, set to music by Thomas Brewer (b. 1611) [q. v.] The book is valuable from a liturgical point of view, besides which it has preserved a record of many anthems by English church composers which are now lost. In 1694 Clifford published ‘The Catechism, containing the Principles of Christian Religion,’ together with ‘A Preparation Sermon before the receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper,’ preached at Serjeants' Inn Chapel in Fleet Street. Clifford was twice married. His first wife's name is unknown, but on 30 May 1667 he obtained a license for his marriage at St. Dunstan in the West, or the chapel of Serjeants' Inn, with Clare Fisher of the parish of St. Gregory by St. Paul's. He died in September 1698. His will (dated 16 June 1687) was proved on the 26th of the same month by his widow, who, according to Hawkins (ed. 1853, p. 690), after her husband's death lived with her daughter in Wardrobe Court, Great Carter Lane, where they kept a school for little children. Clifford had a younger brother named Thomas (baptised on 17 Oct. 1633), who was a chorister at Magdalen College from 1642 to 1645. He also had a brother Richard, who lived at Abingdon, Berkshire; a brother John, who lived at London; and two sisters, Mrs. Anne Coles and Mrs. Vaughan. A son of his was baptised at St. Gregory's on 2 May 1679, and buried there in 1684. By his will he left all his music to be divided among the minor canons of St. Paul's.
[Magd. Coll. Registers, ed Bloxam, i. 16, 28 39, 40, 56, ii. 187, 201, iii. 159; Wood's Athenæ, ed. Bliss, iv. 597; Registers of St. Gregory's, communicated by the Rev. E. Hoskins; Chapter Records of St. Paul's, communicated by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson; will in Probate Registry, Somerset House, 198, Lort; Chester's London Marriage Licenses.]
CLIFFORD, JOHN de, ninth Baron Clifford (1435?–1461), son of Thomas, eighth baron Clifford [q. v.], was born in 1435 or 1436 (Escheat Rolls, iv. 272). He makes his first appearance in February 1458, when, together with Somerset and the Earl of Northumberland, he is found 'with a grete power' lodged without 'the walls of London aboute Temple barre and Westmynstre,' clamouring for compensation for the death of his father at St. Albans. On this occasion the king and his council intervened, and ordered the Duke of York and the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick to establish masses for the souls of the slain nobles and to pay their representatives 'a notable sum of money' (English Chronicle, ed. Davies, 77, 78). Clifford seems now to have been perfectly reconciled with his former enemies, and his name is found as one of the lords attainted with York, Warwick, and Salisbury, after the battle of Blore Heath, at the parliament of Coventry in November 1459 (ib. 84). About the same time (38 Henry VI) he was made commissary-general of the Scotch marches (Dugdale), and a conservator of the truce with Scotland (Rymer, xi. 434). In July 1460 he was summoned to parliament (Dignity of a Peer, iii. 916). He was one of the Lancastrian leaders at the battle of Wakefield (Eng. Chr. 107) in December 1460, where he is reported to have slain the Earl of Rutland, the young son of the Duke of York, with his own hands (Hall). For his acts of cruelty he is said to have received the by-name of 'the Butcher' (Dugdale). In the same battle he is charged with having cut off the head of the dead Duke of York and presented it decked with a paper crown to Queen Margaret (Holinshed). Two months later he was present at the second battle of St. Albans (February 1461), but was slain within six weeks at Ferrybridge, on the eve of the battle of Towton (Gregory, Chronicle, 217). The same year he was attainted by act of parliament (Escheat Rolls, iv. 327). His barony of Skipton went to Sir William Stanley, that of Westmoreland to Richard of Gloucester. He left three children, of whom the eldest, Henry (d. 1523) [q. v.], is the hero of one of Wordsworth's