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diner's Hist. of England, vol. i., and also, from a catholic point of view, in Lingard's Hist. of England, 1849, vol. vii., and Foley's Records, iv. 35-193. Two articles by the Rev. John Hungerford Pollen in the Month, lxi. 304, lxiii. 58, 382, lxiv. 41, were reprinted under the title of 'Father H. Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot,' 1888. A True and Perfect Relation of the whole Proceedings against … Garnet, a Jesuite, and his Confederats, was published by authority in 1606, but, as Jardine admits (p. 214), it is neither true nor perfect. On the vexed question of Garnett's moral guilt numerous works were published, and a bibliographical account of the protracted controversy is given by Jardine, p. 275 seq. In addition to the works already specified the principal authorities are: Addit. MSS. 21203, 22136; Dr. Robert Abbot's Antilogia adversus Apologiam Andreæ Eudæmon-Joannis; Bartoli, Dell'istoria della Compagnia di Giesu; l'Inghilterra, p. 514 seq.; Butler's Hist. Memoirs of the English Catholics, 1822, vol. ii.; Challoner's Missionary Priests, vol. ii. App.; De Backer's Bibl. des Écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus, i. 2044, iii. 2205; Treatise of Equivocation, ed. by Jardine, 1851; Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 395, Tierney's edit., vols. iii. and iv. (with some of Garnett's letters from the originals); Specimens of Amendments to Dodd's Church Hist. by Clerophilus Alethes [John Constable], p. 195; R. P. A. Eudæmon-Joannis [i.e. the Jesuit L'Heureux] ... ad actionem proditoriam E. Coqui Apologia pro R. P. Hen. G——, 1610; A. Eudæmon-Joannis Cydonii … Responsio … ad Antilogiam R. Abbati, 1615; Gerard's Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot, printed in Morris's Condition of Catholics under James I; Gillow's Bibl. Dict.; Granger's Biog. Hist. of England, 5th edit. ii. 80; Kirby's Winchester Scholars, p. 141; Knight's Old England, ii. 145; The Month, xxxiv. 202; More's Hist. Missionis Anglic. Soc. Jesu. pp. 141, 310-30; Neut's Henri Garnet et la Conspiration de Poudres (Gand, 1876); Notes and Queries, 1st ser. x. 19, 73, 2nd ser. viii. 283, 6th ser. v. 403; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 99; Panzani's Memoirs, p. 170; Southwell's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 224; State Papers, Dom., 1605-6; Tanner's Societas Jesu usque ad sanguinis et vitæ profusionem militans.]

T. C.

GARNETT, JEREMIAH (1793–1870), journalist, younger brother of Richard Garnett [q. v.], was born at Otley in Yorkshire, 2 Oct. 1793. After being apprenticed to a printer at Barnsley, he entered the office of 'Wheeler's Manchester Chronicle' about 1814, and with a brief interruption continued there until 1821, when he joined John Edward Taylor [q. v.] in establishing the 'Manchester Guardian.' The first days of this now potent journal were days of struggle. Garnett was printer, business manager, and sole reporter. He took his notes in a rough shorthand extemporised by himself, and frequently composed them without the intervention of any written copy. As the paper gained ground his share in the literary management increased, and in January 1844 he became sole editor upon the death of his partner, a position which he held until his retirement in 1861. During these forty years he exerted very great influence on the public opinion of Manchester and Lancashire generally, the admirable management of the 'Guardian' causing it to be largely read, both by tories and leaguers, who had little sympathy with its moderate liberal politics. He was active as a police commissioner, and in obtaining a charter of incorporation for the city. His pen and his advice were highly influential behind the scenes; but his public appearances were infrequent. The most important was on the occasion of the expulsion of Thomas Milner Gibson and John Bright from the representation of Manchester in 1857, which was almost entirely due to his initiative. As a man he was upright and benevolent, but singularly averse to display; as a writer for the press his principal characteristics were strong common-sense and extreme clearness of style. After his retirement he lived in Scotland and at Sale in Cheshire, where he died on 27 Sept. 1870.

[Manchester Guardian, 28 Sept. 1870; Manchester Free Lance, 1 Oct. 1870; Prentice's Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester; personal knowledge.]

R. G.

GARNETT, JOHN (1709–1782), bishop of Clogher, was born at Lambeth in 1709. His father, John Garnett, was rector of Sigglesthorne, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. His grandfather had been vicar of Kilham, and his great-grandfather a merchant in Newcastle. He graduated at Cambridge B.A. in 1728, and M.A. in 1732; was fellow of Sidney Sussex College, and Lady Margaret preacher to the university. In 1751 he went to Ireland as chaplain to the Duke of Dorset, lord-lieutenant, and in 1752 became bishop of Ferns, whence he was translated to Clogher in 1758. A very favourable account of his conduct in that see is given by Lynam, the biographer of Philip Skelton [q. v.], who calls him `a prelate of great humility, and a friend to literature and religion. Though he had but one eye he could discover men of merit.' Garnett's patronage of Skelton no doubt propitiated Skelton's biographer; but it is nevertheless evident that it would require an exceptional bishop to discern the claims of so exceptional a genius, a kind of Patrick Bronte plus great learning and first-rate abilities, who, says Lynam, `would have continued in a wild part of the country all his days had not Providence placed Dr. Gar-