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swered Hubert's complaints by referring him to the pope for a settlement of the quarrel, and completed Geoffrey's momentary triumph by restoring his Angevin estates and forcing William of Longchamp to make compurgation for his share in the archbishop's arrest in 1191. On 12 May, however, Richard's departure over sea left Hubert supreme in the realm. The canons of York at once laid before him, as justiciar, a charge of spoliation and extortion against their primate. In August Hubert sent to York a committee of justices to investigate the case; they began by casting into prison certain servants of Geoffrey; they summoned Geoffrey himself to stand his trial before them, and, on his refusal, confiscated all his archiepiscopal estates except Ripon, replaced the canons whom he had expelled, and appointed two custodians to check him in the discharge of his functions as sheriff of Yorkshire. In September the appellants came back from Rome with their papal letters, one of which, ordering the restitution of the canons—now already accomplished by the secular arm—was published by Hugh of Durham in York minster on Michaelmas day. Geoffrey at once appealed against the papal sentences; then he went into Normandy to the king, and, by a present of a thousand marks and a promise of another thousand, obtained an order for the restitution of his rights and properties, as well as for the deprivation of the three prebendaries whom he himself had illegally collated under his dead father's seal in July 1189, and who had now turned against him. In January 1195 the papal commissioners opened their inquiry at York; there they were met by an announcement of Geoffrey's appeal, and they accordingly cited both parties to appear at Rome on 1 June. Geoffrey begged for a further respite, ostensibly on a plea of health, in reality, it seems, in consequence of the king's opposition to his journey. The pope granted him an adjournment to 18 Nov., but even then he did not appear. The papal commissioners in England, when urged to suspend him for this contumacy, refused, the chief of them, St. Hugh of Lincoln, declaring that he would rather be suspended himself (Rog. Hoveden, iii. 306). The sentence of suspension was, however, pronounced by the pope in person on 23 Dec. Meanwhile Geoffrey's long stay at the Norman court had ended in afresh quarrel with his half-brother, and before the year closed Richard again deprived him not only of his archiepiscopal property, but also of the sheriffdom of Yorkshire. At length early in 1196 Geoffrey in despair betook himself to Rome. There the tables were suddenly turned. His adversaries were compelled to own that they could not prove their case, and, in consequence, the pope was compelled to restore him to his archiepiscopal office. The king, however, determined that the sentence should be ignored, and Geoffrey, after a brief stay in France, again withdrew to Rome, where he apparently remained for about two years. A fresh charge made against him in 1196, of attempting to rid himself of his chief opponents at York by means of poison found on the person of one of his envoys in England, seems to have broken down completely; and at last, in 1198, Richard summoned both archbishop and canons to make peace in his presence in Normandy. Geoffrey arrived first; Richard granted him full restitution, and sent him back to Rome ' on the king's business and his own.' As soon as his back was turned, the canons presented themselves and got Richard to promise that the restoration should not take effect till Geoffrey's return. When Geoffrey came back another meeting took place at Les Andelys, but no agreement was reached. Once more Geoffrey went to Rome to lay his case before a new pope, Innocent III, and a remonstrance from Innocent moved Richard to make fresh overtures for reconciliation; but Geoffrey would not accept his conditions without first submitting them to the pope, and the pope insisted on the archbishop's restoration without any conditions at all, threatening, in default, to interdict first the province of York and then the whole kingdom of England. Before Innocent's letter was written Richard was dead. John, however, soon after his crowning ordered the archiepiscopal manors to be handed over to Geoffrey's representatives, and on Midsummer day (1199) he and Geoffrey met at Rouen as brothers and friends. The quarrel between the archbishop and his chapter lingered on for another year. An attempt of Cardinal Peter of Capua to mediate between them was frustrated by the interference of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Justiciar Geoffrey FitzPeter, who persuaded the king to forbid Geoffrey's return to England save in his own company. It seems that Geoffrey accordingly came over with John in February 1200, and that shortly afterwards he and his chapter were at last formally reconciled at Westminster before two delegates of the pope.

Within a year another fray was well developed. John had summoned Geoffrey to return with him to France and he had not obeyed; he had refused to allow the king's officers to collect the carucage from his lands; he had never yet paid the three thousand marks promised to Richard for the sheriffdom of