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George IV
George IV
192

tains the correspondence of the Grenville family; Earl of Malmesbury's Diaries and Correspondence, 4 vols. 1844, for domestic affairs vol. iv. is chiefly valuable; Malmesbury seceded from Fox in 1793, and was fully in the confidence of Pitt and Portland; Earl Stanhope's Life of Pitt, 4 vols. 1862, has many letters written by the king in the appendixes; Campbell's Life of Loughborough, Lives of the Chancellors, vol. vi. 1847, for Loughborough's intrigue on catholic question; Lord Auckland's Journal and Correspondence, 4 vols. 1861; Rose's Diaries, 2 vols. 1860, of the highest value, for Rose was an intimate friend of Pitt, held office in both his administrations, and in 1804 had some interesting conversations with the king; Twiss's Life of Eldon, 3 vols. 1844 (from 1801 (i. 364) on to the time of his final derangement (ii. 165) the king treated Eldon with implicit confidence); Pellew's Life of Sidmouth, 3 vols. 1847, a strong ex parte statement (see Lewis's Administrations), and should be read along with Rose, Malmesbury, and Stanhope's Pitt; Lord Castlereagh's Memoirs and Correspondence, vols. i-v. 1849; Lord Holland's Memoirs of the Whig Party, 2 vols. 1854; Lord Colchester's Diary, 3 vols. 1861; Memoirs of F. Horner, 2 vols. 1853. Thackeray's Four Georges is of no historical value. For caricatures see Gillray in British Museum; Wright's Caricature Hist. of the Georges, 2nd edit. 1867; and satires, Wolcot's Works of Peter Pindar, 4 voK 12mo, 1809.]

W. H.

GEORGE IV (1762–1830), king of England, eldest son of George III and of Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was born at St. James's Palace about half-past seven on the morning of 12 Aug. 1762. On the 17th he was created by patent Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, and on 8 Sept. was baptised by Archbishop Secker under the names of George Augustus Frederick, his sponsors being the Dukes of Cumberland and Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the Princess Dowager of Wales. He was inoculated and handed over to the care of a retinue of nurses, under the control of Lady Charlotte Finch. On 26 Dec. 1765 he was created a knight of the Garter, and was presented to the public in October 1769 at a drawing-room formally held in his name. In the main, however, he was brought up along with his brother, Frederick Augustus [q. v.] duke of York, with strict and almost excessive plainness and seclusion, at the Bower Lodge at Kew. In 1771 his regular education began under Markham, bishop of Chester, Dr. Cyril Jackson, a Swiss gentleman, M. de Sulzas, and Lord Holdernesse. In 1776 these tutors were replaced by Hurd, bishop of Lichfield, Mr. Arnold, and Lord Bruce, and the latter was soon succeeded by the Duke of Montague. The prince's education was extensive, and included classics, modern languages, elocution, drawing, and husbandry.

He learnt readily, and showed some taste for Tacitus, but he soon displayed a troublesome disposition. He was headstrong with his tutors and disrespectful to the king. He was addicted to lying, tippling, and low company.

As he approached his nineteenth birthday he pressed his father for a commission in the army and greater personal liberty, but the king refused the request. In 1780, however, he was provided with a small separate establishment in a portion of Buckingham House; the arrangement took effect on 1 Jan. 1781, and he was forthwith launched upon the town. He immediately became closely attached to Fox and the whigs, and though Fox advised him not to identify himself with any political party (Diary of Lord Malmesbury, ii. 75), his partisanship was undisguised, and at times indecent (Walpole, Last Journals, ii. 599, 600). He was at this time stout, of a florid complexion, with gracious and engaging manners, considerable social facility, and some accomplishments. He sang agreeably, played on the violoncello, dressed extravagantly, quoted poetry, and conversed in French and Italian. He fell under the influence of the Duke of Cumberlandand the Duede Chartres; he gamed and drank, and was so extravagant that he spent 10,000l. on his clothes in a year. In 1780 he became involved in an intrigue with Mary Robinson, a beautiful actress, by whose performance of Perdita at Drury Lane he was captivated. He provided for her a splendid establishment, and when after two years the connection terminated, she obtained from him his bond for 20,000l., which she afterwards surrendered. He left her to want in her latter days (see Mary Robinson, Memoirs of Perdita). When the Rockingham ministry came in, he shared the triumph of Fox and the enmity of the king. In June 1783 it became necessary to consider his future allowance. The ministry proposed 100,000l. a year, charged on the civil list. The king thought this an extravagant sum, and offered to provide 50,000l. a year himself. After a ministerial crisis upon the question, it was ultimately decided that the prince, now harassed with debts, should receive from parliament a vote of 30,000l. to liquidate them, and 50,000l. a year from the king. To this the duchy of Cornwall added 13,000l. per annum. He came of age in August, established himself at Carlton House, and took his seat in the House of Lords on 11 Nov. 1783.

The prince's first vote in parliament was given for Fox in one of the India Bill divisions on 15 Dec., and he assisted Fox in his Westminster election. Fox had fallen (18 Dec.), and the prince shared his unpopularity. For some time he lived in the closest alliance with