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and long. 77°–79° E., at an elevation of 19,000 feet above the sea, and resembling the fossils of the oolite in Europe, was exhibited before the Geological Society of London after his death. A narrative of Gerard's ‘Journey from Subathoo to Shipké in Chinese Tartary’ appeared posthumously in ‘Journ. Asiat. Soc. of Bengal’ (1842), xi. 363–91, and his ‘Journal of a Journey from Shipké to the frontier of Chinese Thibet’ was published in the ‘Edinburgh Journal of Science’ (1824), i. 41–52, 215–225. Bishop Heber, who met Gerard at Ummeerpore after his return from this journey, describes him as a man of very modest exterior and of great science and information, and enlarges eloquently in his journal on Gerard's achievements and enterprising spirit (Heber, Journal of a Journey in the Upper Provinces, ii. 59). Sir H. T. Colebrooke made selections from Gerard's geological notes on the Himalayas, whereof duplicates were sent to the Geological Society, London, from which and from Gerard's letters was compiled the ‘Geological Sketch of the Himalayas,’ which appeared in ‘Geological Trans.’ (London), i. (2nd ser.) 124. Gerard was a good Persian scholar and versed in other oriental tongues. He was a most accurate topographer and a very entertaining and observant traveller. Unfortunately, except in the fragmentary shapes just indicated, no accounts of his travels were published during his lifetime. Broken health, the result of the amazing hardships endured in the course of his survey duties and travels, led to his retirement from the service on 22 Feb. 1836, and brought him to a premature grave. He died at Aberdeen on 15 Dec. 1839, in the forty-eighth year of his age, after three days' illness, from a fever, to the attacks of which he was periodically subject.

In 1840 Sir William Lloyd, knight, of Brynestyn, near Wrexham, a Welsh country gentleman, who had been a major in the Hon. East India Company's Bengal infantry and an Indian surveyor, brought out a book, under the editorship of his son, George Lloyd, entitled ‘Narrative of a Journey from Caunpoor [Cawnpore] to the Borendo Pass in the Himalayas, viâ Gwalior, Agra, Delhi, and Sirhind, by Major Sir William Lloyd, knight. … Also Captain Alexander Gerard's Account of an attempt to penetrate by Bekhur to Garoo and Lake Manasarowara. Also a Letter from the late James Gilbert Gerard, esq., M.D., detailing a Visit to the Shatool and the Borendo Passes with the purpose of determining the Line of Perpetual Snow on the Southern Face of the Himalayas,’ 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1840. The second volume of this work consisted of the narratives of Alexander and James Gilbert Gerard, which were prepared for the purpose by Alexander, who died while the sheets were in the printer's hands. Afterwards, Alexander Gerard's papers, or some of them, appear to have been entrusted to Mr. George Lloyd, who published therefrom ‘An Account of Koonawar in the Himalayas,’ London, 1841, 8vo. To this account are appended narratives of Alexander Gerard's Himalayan journeys in 1817–18 and 1819.

The paper on ‘Pendulum Experiments’ (1851), entered under the name in ‘Cat. Scientific Papers,’ vol. ii., was by another Alexander Gerard (LL.D. Aberdeen, 1875, teacher of mathematics in Robert Gordon's Hospital, now Gordon College, Aberdeen). He belonged to a different family.

[Chambers's Biog. Dict. of Eminent Scotsmen (in part inaccurate); Gent. Mag. new ser. xiii. 324; authorities under Gerard, Patrick.]

H. M. C.

GERARD, CHARLES, first Baron Gerard of Brandon in Suffolk, and Earl of Macclesfield (d. 1694), was the eldest son of Sir Charles Gerard, by Penelope, sister and heiress of Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire, and grandson of Ratcliffe, second son of Sir Gilbert Gerard [q. v.], master of the rolls in the reign of Elizabeth. An Englishman, ‘Anglus Lancastrensis,’ of his name entered Leyden University 23 March 1633. He was also educated in France under John Goffe of Magdalen College, Oxford, brother of Stephen Goffe [q. v.] (Peacock, Leyden Students, p. 40; Athenæ Oxon., ed. Bliss, iii. 525; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1633–4, p. 280). Dugdale states that he was ‘trained in the discipline of war from his youth in the United Provinces,’ and that on the outbreak of the civil war in England he joined the king at Shrewsbury, and raised a troop of horse at his own charges (Baronage, ii. 41). At Edgehill, however, he commanded a brigade of infantry, the steadiness of which largely contributed to avert absolute defeat. In this battle, as also in the operations before Lichfield in April 1643, he was wounded. He was present at the siege of Bristol (July 1643), and arranged the very rigorous terms of the capitulation. He fought with distinction in the first battle of Newbury (20 Sept. 1643), and took part in the relief of Newark (March 1644), when he was again wounded, thrown from his horse, and taken prisoner, but released on parole shortly before the besiegers capitulated (Clarke, Life of James II, i. 17; Clarendon, Rebellion, iii. 292, iv. 35, 145, 614; Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert, ii. 237, 259; Baker, Chron. pp. 551–3; Mercur. Aulic. 20 Sept. 1643,