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the independent chapel in Paved Alley, Lime Street, London. He was chosen one of the first of Coward's Friday evening lecturers at the meeting-house in Little St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. In 1729 he removed from Lime Street to Hackney, where he was joint pastor with the Rev. John Barker. He had avowed himself a Calvinist, but he eventually adopted unitarian opinions, and was in consequence dismissed from his ministry in 1737.

His works are: 1. ‘Christ the Christian's Propitiation and Advocate.’ In ‘Twelve Sermons preach'd at Mr. Coward's Lecture,’ London, 1729, p. 438. 2. ‘An Historical Account of Compendious and Swift Writing,’ London, 1736, 8vo; dedicated to John Jacob. This is the earliest history of shorthand. It gives an account of all the English systems from Timothy Bright [q. v.] to James Weston, and contains information not to be found elsewhere. 3. ‘An Essay towards a farther Improvement of Short-Hand,’ London, 1736, 8vo, pp. 56, engraved throughout. Gibbs's system of stenography is clumsy and complicated, and greatly inferior to that of William Mason, published in 1707. 4. ‘A Letter to the Congregation of Protestant Dissenters at Hackney, amongst whom the Author now statedly ministers. With a postscript to all others to whom he has formerly preach'd,’ London, 1737, 8vo (three editions). 5. ‘Explications and Defences of P. Gibbs's Letter to the Congregation of Protestant Dissenters meeting in Mare Street, Hackney,’ London, 1740, 8vo. This and the preceding work relate to the author's conversion to unitarianism. 6. A pamphlet on the controversy between the rival shorthand inventors, Byrom, Weston, and Macaulay. About 1740.

[Byrom's Journal, ii. 3; Wilson's Dissenting Churches, i. 174, 249, ii. 42; Lewis's Hist. of Shorthand, pp. 109; Levy's Hist. of Short-hand Writing, p. 80; Shorthand (a magazine), i. 80; Westby-Gibson's Bibl. of Shorthand, p. 72; Cat. of Dr. Williams's Library, ii. 158, iii. 104.]

T. C.

GIBBS, Sir SAMUEL (d. 1815), major-general, was appointed an ensign in the 102nd foot in October 1783. He removed in 1788 to the 60th, with which he served in Upper Canada, until he was promoted in 1792 to a lieutenancy in the 11th. He joined this regiment at Gibraltar, and returned with it to England in February 1793, when he was appointed aide-de-camp to Lieutenant-general James Grant. He served with the 11th in Corsica, and on board Lord Hood's fleet in the Mediterranean from the spring of 1794 till the end of 1795, when he obtained a company. After acting for some months as captain and adjutant in the garrison at Gibraltar, he returned to England in April 1796, and was reappointed to his former position of aide-de-camp. In May 1798 he accompanied the expedition which was sent under the command of Sir Eyre Coote (1762–1824?) [q. v.] to cut the sluices at Ostend, and was taken prisoner, but included in the exchange of prisoners which took place the following Christmas. In 1799 he succeeded to the rank of major, and accompanied the 11th to the West Indies, where he commanded it in an attack on St. Martin's in the expedition against the Danish and Swedish islands, and in the island of Martinique. In 1802 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 10th West India regiment, and returned to England on the declaration of peace in the same year. He was subsequently appointed to the 59th foot, which he commanded in the expedition to the Cape of Good Hope in 1805 and 1806. From the Cape he proceeded to India, and commanded his regiment in the Travancore war of 1808–9. On 25 July 1810 he received the brevet rank of colonel, and in March 1811 accompanied the expedition under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, which was sent by Lord Minto to conquer Java from the Dutch. He greatly distinguished himself in this expedition, and is repeatedly mentioned in the despatches of Sir Samuel Auchmuty to Lord Minto. On 26 Aug. he supported, with the 59th and the 4th battalion of Bengal volunteers, the attack made by Colonel Gillespie on Fort Corselis, and took one of the redoubts of this stronghold by storm; and on 16 Sept. he led the final attack against the Dutch general Janssens, which resulted in the surrender of the island. Shortly afterwards Gibbs left India, and in 1812 was appointed to the command of the two British regiments stationed with the allied forces at Stralsund. In the following year he served in Holland, and on 4 June was appointed major-general. In the autumn of 1814 he was appointed second in command under Sir E. Pakenham of the expedition sent out to succour the British forces in the United States. This expedition landed on Christmas day, and on 26 Dec. began the operations which preceded the attack on New Orleans on 8 Jan. 1815. In this attack Gibbs, who commanded one of the main columns, was severely wounded, and died on the following day. By a proclamation of the prince regent on 2 Jan. 1815 he was made a knight commander of the Bath.

[Roy. Mil. Cal.; British Campaign at Washington and New Orleans, by an Officer, London, 1821; Gent. Mag.; Thornton's Hist. of India.]

E. J. R.