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fender of church establishments. He argued that the errors supposed to be due to the action of the Emperor Constantine had existed at an earlier date. He became editor of the ‘Church of Scotland Magazine’ in 1834, an office which he held for three years. Some influential members of the church placed at his disposal about 2,000l., which might either be accepted as a gift or devoted to the purpose of building a church for him. A church was accordingly built in the suburb of Kingston, into which he was inducted in 1839. The disruption came in 1843, when Gibson joined the Free church, and on the Sunday following he was interdicted from entering his own church. A place of worship in connection with the Free church was built for him in the same locality. For some years he acted as clerk to the Glasgow free presbytery. In 1855, having a promise of 30,000l. from Dr. Clark of Wester Moffat, with whom Gibson was on friendly terms, the general assembly of the Free church resolved to erect a theological college in Glasgow, and next year Gibson was elected professor of systematic theology and church history. He was conspicuous as a debater in the courts of the Free church, and strenuously opposed anything like innovation. Gibson died on 2 Nov. 1871. Besides contributing to volumes of lectures against infidelity, popery, and voluntaryism, he edited the ‘Scottish Protestant,’ vols. i. and ii., Glasgow, 1852, and wrote treatises on ‘The Marriage Affinity Question,’ 8vo, Edinburgh, 1854; ‘Principles of Bible Temperance,’ 8vo, Glasgow, 1855; ‘Present Truths in Theology,’ 8vo, Glasgow, 1863; ‘The Connection between the Decalogue and New Testament Morality,’ 8vo, Glasgow, 1865; and ‘The Public Worship of God: its Authority and Modes,’ 8vo, Glasgow, 1869.

[Free Church Monthly, January 1872; Disruption Worthies, 1876; newspaper reports; published works.]

J. T.

GIBSON, Sir JAMES BROWN, M.D. (1805–1868), physician, studied medicine and graduated M.D. at Edinburgh. He entered the military service in 1826 as hospital assistant, and was duly promoted to be assistant-surgeon and surgeon. He served in the Crimean war, and was body surgeon to the Duke of Cambridge. In 1860 he was made director-general of the army medical department, and a K.C.B. in 1865. He retired in 1867, and died at Rome on 25 Feb. 1868.

[Lancet, 1868, i. 331.]

C. C.

GIBSON, JAMES YOUNG (1826–1886), translator from the Spanish, born at Edinburgh 19 Feb. 1826, was the fourth son of William Gibson, a merchant of that city. In his sixteenth year he entered the Edinburgh University, in which he completed his full course of study, though he took no degree, and proceeded in 1847 to the divinity hall of the united presbyterian church, where he remained till 1852. During the vacations of 1851–2 he studied at the university of Halle in Germany. On the completion of his theological course in 1853 he was licensed by the Edinburgh presbytery, and about that time became tutor in the family of Henry Birkbeck of Keswick Hall, Norfolk. Having placed his name for some months on the probationers' roll, he received three nearly simultaneous offers of ministerial work. He finally accepted an appointment at Melrose, and accordingly in July was ordained to the ministry. His health broke down, and in 1859 he resigned his appointment. The next few years he devoted to study and foreign travel, and to recruiting his strength. In 1865 he travelled to Cairo and visited the Holy Land. In 1871 he accompanied Mr. Alexander J. Duffield, the translator of ‘Don Quixote,’ on a tour of inspection among the iron mines in Spain. They spent 1872 in travelling over the country. Gibson became interested in Spanish poetry, and after Mr. Duffield's return home proceeded to Madrid, where he began the first of his translations. He settled in London in 1872. In 1878 he was again invalided. While recovering he corrected the proof-sheets of Mr. Duffield's translation of ‘Don Quixote,’ in the first two volumes of which his poetical renderings were inserted. The translation was published in 1881. The unexpected success of this first essay led to Gibson's translation of the ‘Viage al Parnaso,’ which appeared in 1883. In 1883 he married, at Wildbad in Germany, after a three years' engagement, Margaret Dunlop, daughter of John Smith, solicitor, of Irvine in Ayrshire. In 1884 he settled with his wife at Long Ditton, near Surbiton. Here he completed the translation of ‘Numantia,’ published in 1885. Gibson died suddenly at Ramsgate, 2 Oct. 1886. He was buried in the Dean cemetery, Edinburgh. A number of his unpublished translations were printed after his death, with a memoir by his sister-in-law, Agnes Smith.

His published works are: 1. ‘Journey to Parnassus, composed by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, translated into English tercets with preface and illustrative notes … to which are subjoined the antique text and translation of the letter of Cervantes to Mateo Vazquez,’ London, 1883, 8vo. 2. ‘Numantia. A Tragedy by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Translated from the Spanish, with introduction and notes by James Y. Gibson,’ 1885, 8vo. 3. ‘The Cid. Ballads and other poems and translations