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Garrick
Garrod
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Bannister asserted that in Lear his very stick acted. Home's ‘Douglas’ was first offered to Garrick, who returned it with an opinion that it was totally unfit for the stage (Dr. A. Carlyle, Autobiography, p. 325). Armstrong, on account of the rejection of his ‘Forced Marriage,’ maintained his anger for twenty years. Hawkins and Mickle for similar reasons remained hostile. Mickle inserted an angry note in his ‘Lusiad.’ Soon after he saw Garrick in ‘Lear,’ and after fetching a deep sigh said, ‘I wish the note was out of my book’ (Horne, Essays, p. 38, ed. 1808). ‘Garrick in the Shades, or a Peep into Elysium,’ 8vo, 1779, a farce published after his death, represents Garrick as hurt at the cold reception given him by Shakespeare.

Garrick collected books and bric-à-brac. His books, with additions by Mrs. Garrick, were dispersed in 1823 at a ten days' sale at Saunders's. From the Garrick collection of plays Lamb took for Hone's ‘Table Book’ many extracts, subsequently included in his ‘Specimens of the English Dramatic Poets.’ Garrick's will is printed in Murphy's ‘Life.’ Innumerable portraits and engravings of Garrick are to be found. One portrait by Hogarth represents him composing the prologue to ‘Taste.’ Sir Joshua Reynolds painted him several times. One of his most famous pictures is that presenting Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy. A portrait of Garrick as Kitely is, or quite recently was, in the Huth collection. A third portrait by Reynolds was presented to the Garrick Club in 1888 from his family collection by the Earl of Fife. The Garrick Club contains in addition among others a portrait assigned to Hogarth, pictures by Zoffany representing Garrick as Jaffier, as Macbeth, and as Lord Chalkstone, by Hayman as Ranger, by Morland (copied from Dance) as Richard III, by Loutherbourg as Don John in the ‘Chances’ and Richard III; by an unknown hand as Romeo and a steward of the Jubilee. In 1766 Gainsborough [q. v.] painted a portrait of Garrick for the corporation of Stratford-on-Avon, said by Mrs. Garrick to be the best portrait ever taken of ‘her Davy.’ Another by the same artist was painted in 1770.

[The chief authority for the Life of Garrick is contained in his Private Correspondence, published in 2 vols. folio, with a memoir by Boaden, in 1832. Much valuable matter not yet fully used is in the Forster collections at South Kensington Museum. Portions of this have been incorporated into Mr. Percy Fitzgerald's Life of Garrick, 2 vols. 1868. The Life of Garrick by Tom Davies, 2 vols. 1780 (first edit.), the opening sentence of which is attributed to Johnson, is the basis of much subsequent information. Johnson professed his willingness to write a memoir, but the offer was declined by Mrs. Garrick. Murphy's Life of Garrick, 2 vols. 1801, contains matter not elsewhere found. More recent monographs are by Joseph Knight (the writer of this article), 1894, and by Sir Theodore Martin in Monographs, a collection of articles from Quart. Rev. 1906. Some previously unpublished correspondence by Prof. George Pierce Baker of Harvard Univ. appeared in 1907. See also memoirs of contemporary actors, Macklin, Cumberland, O'Keeffe, Colman and Foote; Boswell's Life of Johnson, by Dr. Birkbeck Hill; Dr. Hill's edition of Hume's Letters; Forster's Life of Goldsmith; Horace Walpole's Letters; Rogers's Table Talk; Victor's Works; Tate Wilkinson's Memoirs; The Dramatic Censor; Nichols's Anecdotes and Illustrations; Genest's Account of English Stage; Biographia Dramatica; Notes and Queries, 4th ser., passim; R. W. Lowe's Bibliographical Account of English Theatrical Literature (1888, pp. 136–147), which enumerates no less than 87 pamphlets dealing with Garrick's career.]

J. K.

GARROD, ALFRED HENRY (1846–1879), zoologist, eldest child of Dr. (afterwards Sir) Alfred Baring Garrod (1819–1907), an eminent physician, was born in Charterhouse Square, London, on 18 May 1846. He was educated at University College School, and entered University College in October 1862. He owed much of his scientific enthusiasm to Professor Sharpey's lectures on physiology, and also received a marked bias towards mathematical and mechanical studies from Professor De Morgan. In October 1864 he entered as a medical student at King's College, London, gaining a Warneford scholarship at entrance, and the medical scholarship in three successive years. In 1868 he became a licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society, and won an exhibition for natural science at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he commenced residence in October. During his university course he made several interesting researches on the causes of the varying temperature of the human body and on the circulation of the blood, and made some improvements in the sphygmograph. In 1870 he was elected to a foundation scholarship at St. John's, and in December 1871 he was placed senior in the natural sciences tripos. His election to a fellowship at St. John's in November 1873 was the first instance there of this distinction being given for natural science. In June 1871 Garrod was elected prosector to the Zoological Society, and he pursued his work in the dissecting room of the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, with devoted ardour till his death. The great quantity of material continually accumulating there for research drew him into almost exclusively zoological work. The anatomy of birds be-