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came to take the cross that the archbishop could scarcely defend himself from the pressure, and compelled the archdeacon to pause for a time. He compares the tears which his exhortations produced with those which followed St. Bernard's preaching in French to the Germans, and adds that John afterwards attacked him for emptying Wales of its defenders by his preaching. He gives a full account of his journey in the ‘Itinerarium Cambriæ,’ which appeared in 1191 (DIMOCK, pref. p. xxxiii). Soon after this he crossed to France in company with the archbishop (who intended him to write a history of the Crusade) and Ranulph de Glanville. But on the death of Henry II he was, by the archbishop's advice, sent to keep the peace in Wales, lest it should be disturbed at that critical time. He arrived there, after having had a narrow escape from the loss of all his property at Dieppe, was joined as justiciary with the chief justice (Longchamp), and managed to keep the country at peace. He now obtained absolution from his crusading vow. He was offered the bishopric of Bangor, vacant by Bishop Guy's death in 1190, and of Llandaff by John in 1191. These offers, though in addition to what had been offered in Ireland they greatly pleased him, ‘secura quidem et alta mente calcavit.’

In 1192 he turned his back on the court, took advice from an anchoret, and as the war between Richard and Philip prevented his going to Paris, where he had hoped to go with his books and devote himself to study, he went to Lincoln and remained there till the death of Peter de Leia, bishop of St. David's, in 1198, probably then writing his ‘Gemma Ecclesiastica’ and his lives of the Lincoln bishops. The chapter of St. David's again nominated him with three others, Giraldus the first and foremost, for their bishop. The archbishop (Hubert) refused to listen to the election; he was determined no Welshman should have the bishopric. Six, or at least four, of the canons were ordered to cross the sea and present themselves before Richard in Normandy; they followed him from place to place; before they reached him he was dead. They met John, were well received by him, and were given letters to the justiciary, bidding him not to molest them in their election. They returned and saw Giraldus at Lincoln; he went back to St. David's, and was unanimously elected to the bishopric on 29 June, the canons requesting him to go to Rome and receive consecration from the Pope, so as to obtain the dignity of a metropolitan. In spite of the archbishop's opposition, Giraldus accepted the suggestion, started for Rome in August, and arrived there with some difficulty in November. He saw the pope (Innocent III), presented him with six of his works, ‘quos ipse studio magno compegerat,’ and had the satisfaction of learning that the pope read them carefully, and showed them to the cardinals, giving the preference to the ‘Gemma Ecclesiastica.’ But his suit was a failure; the archbishop had sent letters beforehand to the pope and cardinals, stating that Giraldus had been elected by three only of the canons, the rest of the chapter refusing their consent, and that he did not think him fit for the post (De gestis, p. 122). Giraldus has preserved his lengthy answer to this in the first book of his treatise ‘De Invectionibus’ (Opp. iii. 16). The pope required evidence of the fact that St. David's was independent of Canterbury. Giraldus's arguments on his side will be found in his treatise ‘De jure Menevensis ecclesiæ,’ which exhibits (to use Mr. Brewer's words) a ‘strange mixture of antiquarian research with a total absence of all historical criticism.’

To give full details of the process of the suit would be impossible within the present limits; they may be studied in his treatise just mentioned. Some few of the leading facts may be told. He went to the Welsh laity for support, and the princes of North and South Wales threatened the clergy who would not support him with the loss of their friendship. Then in 1202 the king took the lands belonging to the bishopric into his own hands, and the revenues of Giraldus in his archdeaconry were seized. He was accused of stirring up the Welsh to rebellion. The justiciary proceeded against him; he was summoned to appear before a commission at Worcester; on his appearing there the trial came to nothing in consequence of the absence of the principal judges. He went to Canterbury, asserted that the archbishop, not he, was the king's enemy; returned to Wales, excommunicated two of his chief opponents, was cited to appear before the papal commissioners, and appealed to the pope. The sheriff of Pembroke was ordered to attach the goods and chattels of all his clerical adherents; Giraldus endeavoured to summon a general council of the clergy of the diocese, and with some difficulty obtained this at Brecknock; but it came to nothing (his account of this in his book De Gestis Giraldi is lost). At length a commission was held at Brackley; the canons of St. David's disowned his election. He had now to conceal himself; no one in Wales was allowed to harbour him, and the ports were watched to prevent his crossing. After a variety of adventures (De jure Menevensis ecclesiæ, pp.