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drews, and was deposed in 1638. One of the daughters married Sir John Wemyss of Craigton, another John Lyon of Auldbar, and the third, named Elizabeth, married, about 1632, Dr. George Haliburton, whose son George, born in 1635, became bishop of Brechin and Aberdeen.

A large number of the letters of Archbishop Gladstanes to James VI and others are printed, with many more joint productions of him and his brother bishops, in ‘Ecclesiastical Letters relating to the Affairs of Scotland’ (Bannatyne Club), 2 vols., and also in the memoir of him in ‘Wodrow's Lives’ (Maitland Club), vol. i.

[Gordon's Ecclesiastical Chronicle for Scotland (1867), i. 339–59; Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. vi. passim; Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, vols. v. vi. vii. and viii.; Scott's Fasti Ecclesiæ Scoticanæ, iv. 833, v. 456, vi. 789, 863; Calderwood's History, iv. 660, v. vi. vii. passim; Scot's Narration; Row's History; Spotiswood's History; Diary of Mr. James Melville, and Dr. McCrie's Life of Andrew Melville.]

H. P.


GLADSTANES, JOHN, LL.D. (d. 1574), advocate, is first mentioned on 21 Feb. 1533, at which date he was designated ‘M. Johannes Gladstanes, licentiatus utroque jure.’ In 1534 there was a James Gladstanes of Coklaw, an estate with a defensible tower in Roxburghshire, which had been possessed by the family for many previous generations. It is averred that John Gladstanes was a member of the Coklaw family, and his mother was a Fraser; but circumstances rather indicate the upper ward of Lanarkshire as the locality of his birth. Among the students incorporated in the university of St. Andrews in 1506 appears the name of ‘Johannes Gledstains,’ among determinants in 1507 ‘Johannes Gledstanys,’ and among licentiates in 1509 ‘Johannes Gledstains.’ There is little doubt that the future lord of session is indicated in these references. In 1533 he was a young man, and with his cousin, Robert Fraser, applied to the council for a passport to spend some time in France and elsewhere. It was declared under the great seal that both young men were well born, and belonged to ancient and honourable families.

Gladstanes was in practice as an advocate early in 1534. At a sitting of the lords of session on 2 March that year, it was decided, in compliance with a royal letter, to appoint a new official, to be called ‘Advocatus Pauperum.’ He was to swear that he would act for the king's lieges who should prove that they were too poor to afford a lawsuit. This advocate was to have 10l. yearly from the king's treasurer. The court thereupon chose Master Thomas Marjoribanks and Master John Gladstanes conjunctly and severally to be advocates for all the poor. On 27 April 1535, in consequence of another royal letter, it was arranged that Friday in each week should be set apart for the poor, as they could not afford to be kept long in waiting. On 23 March 1536 Gladstanes appears as witness to a document at Dundee.

In the sederunt on 30 Sept. 1546 Gladstanes appears for the first time as a lord of session. On that day he was appointed their procurator, to receive certain dues from the prelates. On 1 and 4 Feb. 1549 the accounts were audited; a sum of 40l. was available for each of the judges, and a surplus of 17l. 7s. 10d. was divided equally between the king's advocate and Gladstanes. As a gift from the court Gladstanes likewise obtained the arrears of the contribution due by the minister of Failford, Ayrshire, superior of the Trinity or Red Friars. He died without issue in April 1574, leaving to a nephew some oxgates of land in Quothquam, Lanarkshire.

[Register of the Great Seal of Scotland; original manuscript in General Register House, Edinburgh; Retours in Register House; Munimenta de Melros, p. 486; Regist. Episc. Brechinensis, ii. 319; Regist. Univ. Glasguensis, ii. 75–469; Acta Dom. Con. et Sess. 1811, pp. 24, 45; Lord Hailes's Catalogue of the College of Justice; Brunton and Haig's Senators of the College of Justice; Records of University of St. Andrews.]

J. T.

GLADSTONE, Sir JOHN (1764–1851), merchant, of Liverpool, was born at Leith 11 Dec. 1764, where his father, Thomas Gladstones (1732–1809), was a shopkeeper and corn merchant. His mother was Helen, daughter of Walter Neilson, esq., of Springfield. John, at the age of twenty-two, entered the service of Corrie & Co., corn merchants, in Liverpool. His shrewdness was great, his energy indomitable, and he was soon taken into partnership. The first vessel which went from Liverpool to Calcutta after the trade of the East had been thrown open was despatched by him. While still young he was sent out to buy corn in America on account of a European scarcity. He was unable to procure it, as the American crops had suffered, and meanwhile twenty-four vessels had been engaged to convey to Europe the grain he was despatched to purchase. The prospect of sending them back in ballast was ruinous, but by a singular display of energy he managed to stock the holds of every one of the vessels with commodities which were sold in Britain subsequently at a very trifling loss. In 1813 he published two letters addressed to the Earl of Clancarty, president of the Board of Trade, insisting ‘on the inexpediency of per-