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are in the Clarendon MSS. at the Bodleian and the Lambeth Library. In ‘King Charles I, Author of Icôn Basilike,’ 1828, Wordsworth replied to Lingard, Hallam, and other critics, especially the Rev. H. J. Todd, who in 1825 published ‘A Letter … concerning the Authorship,’ &c., and in 1829 replied, chiefly upon the internal evidence, in ‘Bishop Gauden the author of Εἰκὼν Βασιλική.’ An edition of the Eicon, with a preface by Miss C. M. Phillimore, appeared in 1879, and a reprint, edited by Mr. Edward Scott, with a facsimile of the original frontispiece, appeared in 1880. Both writers believe in the royal authorship. For Gauden's Life see Wood's Athenæ (Bliss), iii. 612–18; Baker's Hist. of St. John's College (Mayor), pp. 266, 678; Oliver's Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, pp. 150, 151; Biog. Brit. (1757), vol. iv.; and Calendars of State Papers.]

R. H-r.

GAUGAIN, THOMAS (1748–1810?), stipple-engraver, born at Abbeville in France in 1748, came when young with other members of his family to England. He studied engraving under R. Houston. He practised at first as a painter, and exhibited in 1778 at the Royal Academy, sending ‘A Moravian Peasant,’ ‘The Shepherdess of the Alps,’ and a portrait. He continued to exhibit there up to 1782. From 1780 he devoted himself principally to engraving, using the stipple method, and engraving some of his own designs. Four of these, printed in colours, viz. ‘Annette,’ ‘Lubin,’ ‘May-day,’ and ‘The Chimney Sweeper's Garland,’ he sent to the exhibition of the Free Society of Artists in 1783. Gaugain ranks among the best stipple-engravers of the period, and produced a large number of engravings. Among them may be noticed ‘Diana and her Nymphs,’ after W. Taverner, ‘The Officers and Men saved from the Wreck of the Centaur,’ after J. Northcote, ‘Lady Caroline Manners,’ after Sir Joshua Reynolds, ‘The Death of Prince Leopold of Brunswick,’ after J. Northcote, ‘The Last Interview of Charles I with his Children,’ after Benazech, ‘Diligence and Dissipation,’ a set of ten engravings after J. Northcote, ‘Rural Contemplation,’ after R. Westall, ‘The Madonna,’ after W. Miller, ‘Warren Hastings,’ from a bust by T. Banks, ‘Charles James Fox,’ from a bust by Nollekens, ‘Lieut.-Col. Disbrowe,’ after T. Barker, and numerous others after W. Hamilton, W. R. Bigg, G. Morland, J. Barney, J. Milbourne, Maria Cosway, and others. Gaugain lived for some years at 4 Little Compton Street, Soho. It is not certain when he died, but the engraving mentioned last was published in 1809, and he very probably died soon after that date.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Dodd's MS. Hist. of English Engravers; Graves's Dict. of Artists, 1760–1880; Leblanc's Manuel de l'Amateur d'Estampes.]

L. C.

GAULE, JOHN (fl. 1660), divine, studied at both Oxford and Cambridge, but did not graduate. He was an unlearned and wearisome ranter. For a time he appears to have been employed by Lord Lindsey, probably as chaplain. By 1629 he was chaplain to Lord Camden. He was then an ardent royalist, but afterwards paid assiduous court to the leading Commonwealth men, in the hope of obtaining preferment. Through the interest of Valentine Wauton he became vicar of Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire, by 1646. In the hope of being allowed to retain his living at the Restoration, he wrote a wretched tract, entitled ‘An Admonition moving to Moderation, holding forth certain brief heads of wholesom advice to the late and yet immoderate Party,’ 12mo, London, 1660, to which he prefixed a slavish dedication to Charles II. His other writings are: 1. ‘The Practiqve Theorists Panegyrick. … A Sermon preached at Pauls-Crosse,’ 12mo, London, 1628. 2. ‘Distractions, or the Holy Madnesse. Feruently (not Furiously) inraged against Euill Men, or against their Euills,’ 12mo, London, 1629. 3. ‘Practiqve Theories, or Votiue Speculations, vpon Iesvs Christs Prediction, Incarnation, Passion, Resurrection,’ 12mo, London, 1629. 4. ‘Practiqve Theories, or Votiue Speculations vpon Abrahams Entertainment of the three Angels,’ &c., 3 parts, 12mo, London, 1630. 5. ‘A Defiance to Death. Being the Funebrious Commemoration of … Viscount Camden,’ 12mo, London, 1630. 6. ‘Select Cases of Conscience touching VVitches and VVitchcraft,’ 12mo, London, 1646. 7. ‘A Sermon of the Saints judging the World. Preached at the Assizes holden in Huntingdon,’ 4to, London, 1649. 8. ‘Πῦς-μαντία. The Mag-Astro-Mancer, or the Magicall-Astrologicall-Diviner posed and puzzled,’ 4to, London, 1652. Another edition under the title of ‘A Collection out of the best approved Authors, containing Histories of Visions,’ &c., was published without Gaule's name in 1657.

[Prefaces to works cited above.]

G. G.

GAUNT, ELIZABETH (d. 1685), executed for treason, was the wife of William Gaunt, a yeoman of the parish of St. Mary's, Whitechapel. She was an anabaptist, and, according to Burnet, spent her life doing good, ‘visiting gaols, and looking after the poor of every persuasion.’ In the reign of Charles II she had taken pity on one Burton, outlawed for his part in the Rye House plot. Though she was a poor woman, keeping a