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of England. Catherine, the first countess of Nottingham, died in February 1602-3, which, we are told, the admiral took 'exceeding grievously,' keeping his chamber, mourning in sad earnest ' (Chamberlain, p. 179; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 9 March 1603). She was a favourite with the queen, and when she died in February 1602-3, Elizabeth fell into a deep melancholy, and herself died 20 March following. The story that the countess intercepted a ring sent by Essex to Elizabeth, and confessed the deceit to the queen on her deathbed, is doubtless apocryphal [see Devereux, Robert, second Earl of Esssex]. Before June 1604 Howard married his second wife Margaret, daughter of James Stuart, earl of Murray, great-granddaughter through the female line of the Regent Murray. On 12 June 1604 she was granted the manor and mansion-house of Chelsea for life (Cal. State Papers, Dom.); she is again mentioned in December 1604 as having a 'polypus in her nostril, which some fear must be cut off' (Winwood, ii. 39). By her Howard had two sons: James, who died a child in 1610, and Charles, born 25 Dec. 1610, who, on the death of his half-brother and namesake, succeeded as third Earl of Nottingham; he died without issue in 1681, when the title became extinct, the barony of Effingham passing to the line of Howard's younger brother.

A portrait of Howard by Mytens is at Hampton Court; another, full length, life size, in Garter robes, collar of the Garter with George, with the Armada seen in the background through an open window, belongs to the Duke of Norfolk; a third, three-quarter length, life size, is the property of Mr. G. Milner-Gibson Cullum; a fourth is in the possession of the Earl of Effingham. They all represent Howard as an old man.

[By far the best Memoir of Howard is that in the Biographia Britannica, which exhausts the older sources of information; the memoir in Campbell's Lives of the Admirals (i. 392) is a condensed version of it. The notice in Collins's Peerage (edit. of 1768), v. 121, is also good; that in Southey's Lives of the British Admirals, ii. 278, is, as a biography, meagre. Much new matter is in the Calendars of State Papers, Dom. There is some interesting correspondence in Winwood's Memorials, vol. ii., and in Chamberlain's Letters (Camden Soc. 1861). Treswell's Relation of the Embassy to Spain (1605) is republished in Somers's Tracts, 1809, ii. 70. The story of the Armada and of the sacking of Cadiz is in Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, and the whole naval history of the period is brought together in Lediard's Naval History. Other authorities bearing on parts of Howard's extended career are Monson's Naval Tracts in Churchill's Voyages, vol. iii.; Devereux's Lives of the Devereux, Earls of Essex; Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia in Harleian Miscellany, ii. 98; Howard's Memorials of the Howard family, which makes some strange blunders in dates; G. Leveson-Grower's Howards of Effingham, in vol. ix. of Surrey Arch. Coll. p. 395; Froude's Hist. of England (cabinet edit.); Gardiner's Hist. of England (cabinet edit,)]

J. K. L.

HOWARD, CHARLES, first Earl of Carlisle (1629–1685), born in 1629, was the second son, and eventually heir, of Sir William Howard, knt., of Naworth, Cumberland, by Mary, eldest daughter of William, lord Eure. His father was grandson of Lord William Howard (1563-1640) [q.v.] In 1646 he was charged with having borne arms for the king, but was cleared of his delinquency by ordinance of parliament, and on payment of a fine of 4,000l. (Lords' Journals, viii. 296, 469, 477, 499). Lady Halkett,who visited Naworth in 1649, gave particulars of Howard's household in her 'Autobiography;' he was married at that date. In 1650 he was appointed high sheriff of Cumberland. Though professing to be a supporter of the Commonwealth, his known loyalist predilections led to several charges of disaffection being brought against him before the commissioners for sequestrations in Cumberland in the beginning of 1650 (T. C., Strange Newes from the North, pp. 5-6). His explanation seems to have satisfied the council of state (25 March 1650), and in the following May directions were sent him respecting the trial and punishment of certain witches whom he professed to have discovered in Cumberland (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1650, pp. 58, 159). Sir Arthur Hesilrige was, however, instructed to sift the charges thoroughly and report the result (ib. p. 175). Howard bought for his residence Carlisle Castle, a crown revenue, and became governor of the town. At the battle of Worcester he distinguished himself on the parliamentarian side. `Captain Howard of Naward, captain of the life guards to his excellency, has received divers sore wounds, and Major Pocher, but both with hope of life, and some few others. Captain Howard did interpose very happily at a place of much danger, where he gave the enemy (though with his personal smarts) a very seasonable check, when our foot, for want of horse, were hard put to it' (J. Scott and R. Salway to the president of the council of state, in Cary, Mem. of the Civil War, ii. 363). In 1653 he sat as M.P. for Westmoreland in Barebone's parliament, and on 14 July in the same year was appointed a member of the council of state, and placed on various committees (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1653-4, p. 25). In 1654 and 1656 he represented Cum-