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body, and although 'at some time disunited from the society was afterwards reinstated into membership.' His separation may have been due to his falling in 'love with a black-eyed gipsy girl' (Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. v. 386); but there is nothing to warrant Mr. Simson's conclusion 'that the quaker married the gipsy girl' (Simson, Hist. of the Gipsies, 1865, p. 380 n.) He died at Northampton 30 Aug. 1831. His 'Epitome of the History of the World from the Creation to the Advent of the Messiah,' first published anonymously (London, 12mo, 1812), reached a third edition under the title of 'The Fulfilment of Scripture Prophecy' (8vo, 1823). It is a euhemeristic work, where Elijah is the prototype of Phaeton, Jephtha's daughter of Iphigenia. 'A Historical Survey of the Customs, Habits, and Present State of the Gypsies' (York, 8vo, 1816), has still some value,though it is mainly based on Raper's translation of Grellmann's 'Zigeuner.'

[Joseph Smith's Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1867; Annual Register, 1831, p.257.

F. H. G.

HOYLE, EDMOND (1672–1769), writer on whist, was born in 1672. The statements that Yorkshire was the county of his birth (Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. vii. 270), that he was registrar of the prerogative court of Dublin in 1742, and that he held property in Dublin (Gent. Mag. December 1742, p. 659; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. v. 259), apply to another person. Hoyle is said to have been called to the bar. In 1741 he was living in Queen Square, London, and gave lessons on whist-playing. He also circulated a manuscript handbook, which developed into his famous 'Short Treatise on the Game of Whist,' first printed in 1742. In the early editions the author offers for a guinea to disclose the secret of his ' artificial memory which does not take off your Attention from your Game.' The success of his first book encouraged Hoyle to bring out similar manuals on 'Backgammon,' 'Piquet,' 'Quadrille,' and 'Brag.' An amusing skit, 'The Humours of Whist ' (1743), satirised the teacher and his pupils, and alluded to the dismay of sharpers who found their secrets made known (Cavendish [i.e. H. Jones], Laws and Principles of Whist, 18th edit. 1889, p.45-8). A lady, unfortunate at brag, wrote to the 'Rambler' on 8 May 1750, that 'Mr. Hoyle, when he had not given me above forty lessons, said I was one of his best scholars.' Hoyle and his teaching are spoken of in the 'Gentleman's Magazine,' February 1755, p. 75, in Fielding's 'Tom Jones' (bk. xiii. c. 5), in Alexander Thomson's poem on 'Whist' (1792), and in Byron's 'Don Juan' (canto iii. v. xc.), which first appeared in 1821.

Hoyle died 29 Aug. 1769 at Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, aged 97 (Gent. Mag.1769,p.463; Chambers,Book of Days, ii.282), and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His will, dated 26 Sept. 1761, was proved in London on 6 Sept. 1769; the executors were his sister Eleanor, a spinster, and Robert Crispin (Notes and Queries, 7th ser. vii. 481-2). No authentic portrait is known; the picture by Hogarth, exhibited at the Crystal Palace in 1870, represents a Yorkshire Hoyle.

Hoyle was the first to write scientifically on whist, or indeed any card game. His 'Short Treatise' soon became popular. He was a careless editor, but possessed a vigorous style of writing and much originality. He seems to have profited by the experience of the best players of the day, and introduced many improvements in his successive editions. The 'Short Treatise' was entered at Stationers' Hall on 17 Nov. 1742 by the author, as sole proprietor of the copyright. Its full title is 'A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist, containing the Laws of the Game: And also some Rules whereby a Beginner may, with due attention to them, attain to the Playing it well. Calculations for those who will Bet the Odds on any Point of the Score of the Game then playing and depending. Cases stated, to shew what may be effected by a very good Player in Critical Parts of the Game. References to Cases, viz. at the End of the Rule you are directed how to find them. Calculations, directing with moral Certainty, how to play well any Hand or Game, by shewing the Chances of your Partner's having 1, 2, or 3 certain Cards. With Variety of Cases added in the Appendix,' London, printed by John Watts for the Author, 1742, 12mo. The copy in the Bodleian Library is the only one known of this first edition; several of the other early editions are only preserved in single copies. The price, one guinea, gave rise to piracies, of which the first appeared in 1743. Hoyle's own second edition (1743), with additions, was sold at 2s. 'in a neat pocket size.' The third and fourth editions were published in 1743; in the fourth edition the laws were reduced to twenty-four, and so remained until the twelfth edition, when the laws of 1760 were given. Fifth edition (1744), sixth (1746), seventh (no copy known). In the eighth edition (1748) thirteen new cases are added, together with the treatises on quadrille, piquet, and backgammon. The ninth edition (1748) appeared as 'The Accurate Gamester's Companion.'