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painted and engraved by Hogarth, and was to have been prefixed to the translation of Dante.

[Bloxam's Reg. of Magd. Coll. vi. 185; Baker's Biog. Dramatica; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iii. 601; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 686; Boswell's Life of Johnson,iv. 12.]

R. B.

HUGGINS, WILLIAM (1820–1884), animal-painter, was born in Liverpool in 1820. Samuel Huggins [q.v.] was an elder brother. William received his first instruction in drawing at the Mechanics' Institution, afterwards the Liverpool Institute, and now the government school of art, where at the age of fifteen he gained a prize for a design, 'Adam's Vision of the Death of Abel.' He also made many studies from the animals at the Liverpool zoological gardens, and was a student at the life class of the old Liverpool academy, of which he became a full member. One of the best-known of his early works was 'Fight between the Eagle and the Serpent,' to illustrate a passage from Shelley's 'Revolt of Islam.' The reclining figure in the composition is his wife. Disappointed at the reception of his animal pictures, he painted about 1845 several subjects from Milton, 'Una and the Lion' from Spenser's 'Faerie Queene,' 'Enchantress and Nourmahal' from Moore's 'Lalla Rookh,' &c. In 1861 Huggins removed to Chester, and during his residence there painted many views of the cathedral and the city, the `Stones of Chester, or Ruins of St. John's,' `Salmon Trap on the Dee,' &c. He left Chester in 1876 for Bettws-y-Coed, North Wales, with the purpose of studying landscape; one of the results was 'The Fairy Glen,' exhibited at the Liverpool Exhibition, 1877, but he again returned to Chester, and died at Christleton, near that city, 25 Feb. 1884.

Huggins was a constant exhibitor at the Royal Academy from 1846 till within a few years of his death, and at the exhibitions at Liverpool, Manchester, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. His horses, cattle, and poultry pictures were his best and most characteristic work, good in drawing, and remarkable for brilliance of colour; 'Tried Friends,' purchased by the Liverpool corporation, well illustrates these qualities. Few artists have been more versatile; he not only drew portraits in chalk of many of his friends, but painted some large equestrian portraits in oil. An excellent example is the portrait of Mr.T. Gorton, master of the Holcombe hunt, with a leash of hounds. He was an accomplished musician, and had an exceptional knowledge of other branches of art, such as ceramics and glass. Among his portraits is one of himself (1841), and another of his elder brother, Samuel Huggins.

[Liverpool Mercury, 28 Feb. 1884; exhibition catalogues; private information.]

A. N.

HUGGINS, WILLIAM JOHN (1781–1845), marine-painter, born in 1781, began life as a sailor in the service of the East India Company. During his voyages he made many drawings of ships and landscapes in China and elsewhere. He eventually settled in Leadenhall Street, near the East India House, and practised his art as a profession, being specially employed to make drawings of ships in the company's service. In 1817 he exhibited a picture in the Royal Academy, and continued to exhibit occasionally up to his death. From his nautical knowledge his pictures had some repute as portraits of ships, but were weak in colouring and general composition. Some of them were engraved. Huggins was marine-painter to George IV and to William IV: for the latter he painted three large pictures of the battle of Trafalgar, two of which are at Hampton Court and one in St. James's Palace. He died in Leadenhall Street on 19 May 1845.

[Gent. Mag. new ser. 1815, xxiv. 93; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Royal Acad. Catalogues.]

L. C.

HUGH (d. 1094), called of Grantmesnil, or Grentemaisnil, baron and sheriff of Leicestershire, son of Robert of Grantmesnil, in the arrondissement of Lisieux, by Advice (Hadwisa), daughter of Geroy, lord of Escalfoy and of Montreuil near the Dive, was probably born not later than 1014. He served Duke Robert the Magnificent, who resigned the duchy in 1035. His father at his death left his land's in equal shares to Hugh and his younger brother Robert. On receiving their inheritance they determined to build a monastery, and fixed on a spot near their own home. Their uncle, William FitzGeroy, pointed out that the site was unsuitable, and persuaded them to restore the abbey of St. Evroul, which they obtained by exchange from the abbot and convent of Bec, for it was then a cell of that house. They undertook their work in 1050, endowed their house, and peopled it with monks from Jumièges. Robert became a member of the convent, was appointed prior and afterwards in 1059 abbot, was expelled by Duke William in 1063, betook himself to Italy, where he was welcomed by Robert Guiscard, and was given an abbey to rule over, and two others over which he placed two of his followers (Orderic, pp.474, 481-4). Hugh was also banished along with some other lords in consequence of accusa-