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vailed in most Christian lands in times of ignorance and fanaticism since the fifth century. In 428 an attack was made upon the Jews in Mestar, in the region of Chalcis, for crucifying a boy, and many were afterwards punished by legal sentence (Socrates, Historia, vii. c. 16; Cassiodorus, Historia Tripartita, xi. c. 13). Several cases are reported in France in the twelfth century, in Germany in the thirteenth and two following centuries, and in Spain in the fifteenth century. A like crime is said to have been committed at Constantinople in 1569, and on 17 April 1598 a boy named Albert was supposed to have been crucified in Poland (Acta SS. xi. 832). In 1840 the old superstition was revived at Damascus and at Rhodes, and in 1882 at Tiszaeszlar, near Tokay, in Hungary. In the last case the innocence of the Jews was conclusively proved by legal proceedings.

[For the story of St. Hugh the contemporary authorities are Matt. Paris, v. 516-19, 546, 552 (Rolls Ser.); Annales Monast.,Annals of Burton, i. 340 sq., 348, 371, and of Waverley, ii. 346 (Rolls Ser.); Royal Letters, Henry III, ii, 110 (Rolls Ser.); Fœdera, i. 335, 344 (Record Off.); ballad in Fr. Michel's Hugues de Lincoln; there are many later notices of the story; see also Tovey's Anglia Judaica, pp. 136-43; Archæologia, i. 26; Papers at Anglo-Jewish Exhibition of 1887, p. 159; Hume's paper in Liverpool Lit. and Philos. Soc.'s Proc. of 13 Nov. 1848, and criticism upon it in Athenæum of 15 Dec. 1849; Chaucer's Cant. Tales, Prioress's Tale, p. 102, ed. Tyrwhitt; Marlowe's Jew of Malta, act iii. p. 165, ed. Dyce; ballads in Michel's Hugues de Lincoln from collections of Grilchrist, i. 210, Jamieson, i. 139, Pinkerton, i. 75, Motherwell, p. 51, and Brydges, i. 381; Percy's Reliques, i. 54-60, ed. Wheatley. For similar accusations in England, Anglo-Saxon Chron. an. 1137 (Rolls Ser.); Rob. de Monte (Migne), col. 459; Trivet, p. 68 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); two Conts. of Flor. of Wore. ii. 155, 222 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Gervase of Cant. i. 296 (Rolls Ser.); Chron. of Jocelin de Brakelond, pp. 12, 113, 144 (Camden Soc.); Ric. of Devizes, pp. 59-64 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Walt. of Coggeshall, p. 26 (Rolls Ser.); Roger of Wendover, iv. 324; Matt. Paris, iv. 30, 377, u.s.; in France, Lambert Waterlos, an. 1163, Rob. de Monte, ann. 1171, 1177 in Recueil des Historiens, xiii. 315, 320, 520, and Rigord, an. 1191, Will. of Armorica, an. 1192, and Chr. de St. Denys in xvii. 37, 71, 377. For accounts of similar charges in other lands, see Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. c. 16 (fo. Paris); Cassiodorus's Hist. Tripart. xi. c. 13, Op. p. 343 (fo. Venice); Fleury's Hist. du Christianisme, l. 88, c. 40, ed. Vidal, v. 600; Graetz's Geschichte der Juden, vols. vi. vii. passim; Fr. Michel's Hugues de Lincoln, u.s.; Acta SS. Bolland. xi. 501, 695-738, 832, 836; Erfurt Annals, Pertz SS. xvi. 31; Annals Placent., Rerum Ital. SS. xx. cols. 945-9 (Muratori); H. Stero, an. 1288, Rerum Germ. SS. i. 572 (Freher); Percy's Reliques, u.s.; Dr. Lea's Religious Hist. of Spain, pp. 437 sq.; Ann. Register, vol. cxxiv.for 1882, p. 248.]

W. H.

HUGH of Evesham (d. 1287), cardinal. [See Evesham.]

HUGH of Balsham (d. 1286), bishop of Ely and founder of Peterhouse, Cambridge. [See Balsham.]

HUGH, WILLIAM (d. 1549), divine, born in Yorkshire, was, according to Wood, educated at Christ Church, Oxford, but graduated B.A. in April 1539, and proceeded M.A. 6 June 1543, from Corpus Christi College. He engaged in teaching at Oxford, but afterwards became chaplain to Lady Denny. He died at Corpus Christi College in 1549. Hugh published 'The Troubled Mans Medicine,' London, 1546, a religious work, said in the preface to have been written for a sick friend, and edited by John Faukener. A second part, entitled 'A Swete Consolation, and the Second Boke of the Troubled Mans Medicine,' &c., has a separate title-page, a dedication to Lady Denny, and a curious frontispiece. Another edition is dated 1567, 8vo. The whole was reprinted in 1831 among the works of 'British Reformers,' Hugh is also credited with: 1. `A Boke of Bertram the Priest in treating of the Body and Blood of Christ,' London, 1549, 8vo, 12mo. This was corrected by Thomas Wilcocks, and reprinted in 1582, and again in 1686 with further corrections and additions. 2. 'De Infantibus absque Baptismo decedentibus,' dedicated to Queen Catherine Parr.

[Wood's Athenæ Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 182; Wood's Fasti Oxon. i. 109, 118; Reg. Univ. Oxf. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), ed. Boase, i. 196; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp.579, 876; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.]

W. A. J. A.

HUGHES, DAVID (1813–1872), independent minister, was born at Cefn-uchaf, Llanddeiniolen, Carnarvonshire; became member of Bethel independent church, Arfon, at an early age; and complied with the request of the congregation to begin preaching in 1832. He studied at Hackney College, and afterwards at the university of Glasgow, where he graduated and read theology under Dr. Wardlaw. He was ordained on 14 Sept. 1841, and became pastor of two small congregations in Flintshire. In 1845 he removed to St. Asaph, where he became part editor of the `Beirniadur,' and projected his chief work, 'Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol a Duwinyddol,' i.e. 'A Scriptural and Theological Dictionary,' which was completed in 1852. A second edition of this work appeared, vol. i. 1072 pp., in 1876, edited by the Rev. John Peter, and vol. ii.