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through the manufacturing towns of Cheshire, holding a series of meetings. The citizens of Preston, however, grew dissatisfied with him. In 1833 he lost his seat, and quitted political life, devoting himself thenceforth to his business as a blacking manufacturer. On 15 Feb. 1835, while travelling for orders, he was seized with paralysis, and died at Alresford, Hampshire, and was buried at Parham, in the family vault of his mistress, Mrs. Vince. Gronow, who was in command of the troops at the Spa Fields meeting, describes him in his ‘Reminiscences’ as ‘a large, powerfully-made fellow,’ who might have been taken for a butcher. It was he who made wearing a white hat the badge of a radical in the third decade of this century. He was handsome, gentlemanly, extremely vivacious and energetic, a violent and stentorian, but impressive speaker. Even to his colleagues he was vain, domineering, and capricious, and jealous of their popularity. Romilly sums up his opponents' view of him in the words ‘a most unprincipled demagogue,’ but his own memoirs are the worst evidence against him.

[The principal authority for the life of Hunt is his own Memoirs, published in 1820; they are, however, brought down only to 1812. His correspondence, published in the same year, consists chiefly of political addresses to and by himself, and does not contain much personal information. Huish's Life of Hunt, 1836, is little more than a repetition of the Memoirs. Samuel Bamford's Passages from the Life of a Radical is valuable, though not very favourable to Hunt. See also report of a meeting at the Crown and Anchor Tavern to secure Hunt's election for Westminster, 1818; Investigation at Ilchester Gaol into the conduct of W. Bridle to H. Hunt, 1821; Addresses to the Reformers by H. Hunt, 1831; and his Lecture on the Conduct of the Whigs to the Working Classes, 1832. The authority for his trial is the report in vol. i., Macdonnell's State Trials, new ser.; see also State Trials, xxxii. 304, for the Spa Fields meetings. There are also references to him in Molesworth's Hist. of the Reform Bill; Greville Memoirs, 1st ser.; Croker Papers; Life of Romilly, and Duke of Buckingham's Memoirs of the Court of England during the Regency and reigns of George IV and William IV.]

J. A. H.

HUNT, JAMES (1833–1869), ethnologist and writer on stammering, son of Thomas Hunt (1802–1851) [q.v.], was born at Swanage, Dorsetshire, in 1833, and after some years of medical study continued his father's specialty as a curer of stammering, and published in 1854 a book on the cure of stammering, with a memoir of his father (3rd edit. 1857). Among those to whom he rendered much benefit was Charles Kingsley. He took a house at Hastings, in which he received a large number of patients. His attention having early been directed to anthropology, he joined the Ethnological Society in 1854. From 1859 to 1862 he was its honorary secretary. He was, however, unsuccessful in his endeavours to broaden its basis so as to include the full range of modern anthropology. Many members did not like free speculation about man's origin and antiquity. Hunt consequently in 1863 founded the Anthropological Society, of which he was the first president. He also published and edited on his own responsibility the ‘Anthropological Review,’ and the society undertook the translation of several valuable books on anthropological subjects, Hunt himself editing Carl Vogt's ‘Lectures on Man,’ 1865. His paper on ‘The Negro's Place in Nature,’ first read at the British Association meeting at Newcastle, 1863, attracted much attention, as it defended the subjection and even slavery of the negro, and supported belief in the plurality of human species. About the same time Hunt made strenuous endeavours to get anthropology recognised as a distinct section or subsection of the British Association, ethnology being then grouped with geography, and anthropology being largely ignored. His combativeness was partially responsible for his temporary failure; but in 1866, with Professor Huxley's aid, anthropology became a distinct department of Section D (biology), and in 1883 was made a separate section. He resigned the presidency of the Anthropological Society in 1867, when the members numbered over five hundred, remaining in office as its ‘director’ or chief executive officer. He was re-elected president in 1868, but had to meet an acrimonious personal attack on his conduct of the society and of the ‘Anthropological Review,’ which he had carried on at a heavy loss to himself. His conduct was amply vindicated, but the controversy told on his health. In August 1869 he went to the meeting of the British Association at Exeter, but died of inflammation of the brain at Ore Court, Hastings, on the 29th of that month. He left a widow and five children. Without being profound, he was a serious student, who did much to place anthropology on a sound basis; but his freedom of speech, quick temper, and sceptical views on religion roused much personal hostility.

Hunt wrote: 1. ‘A Manual of the Philosophy of Voice and Speech, especially in relation to the English Language and the Art of Public Speaking,’ London, 1859. 2. ‘Stammering and Stuttering; their Nature and Treatment,' London, 1861; 7th edition, 1870. His presidential addresses to the Anthropological