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by Llewellyn Jewitt, with corrections from Hutton's original manuscript, a folio, written throughout with one pen). His 'Works,' 1817, 8vo, 8 vols., consist of the above, excluding Nos. 6, 9, 10, 14, the editions varying in different sets, with new general title-page to each volume.

[The earliest account of Hutton is in Phillips's Annual History of Public Characters, 1802; Biog. Dict. of Living Authors, 1816, p. 171; Monthly Repository, 1818, p. 368 sq.; Authentic Account of the Riots in Birmingham [1791], p.8; Report of the Trials of the Rioters [1791], pp. 14 sq.; Views of the Ruins, 1792 (view of Bennett's Hill, with narrative); Rutt's Memoirs of Priestley, 1832, ii. 187; notes supplied by S. Timmins, esq.; Hutton's Works.]

A. G.

HUTTON, WILLIAM (1798–1860), geologist, born in 1798, near Sunderland, settled in Newcastle-on-Tyne at an early age, and acted as agent of the Norwich Fire Insurance Company. He soon acquired a reputation as a practical geologist, an authority upon the coal measures, and an ardent collector of coal-fossils. 'The fossils of our coal-fields first found an exponent in him.' His intimacy with John Buddle [q. v.] gave him great advantages in his researches. He was an honorary secretary of the Newcastle Natural History Society from its foundation in 1829 till he left Newcastle in 1846, and many papers written by him were published in the society's 'Transactions' (1831-8). He took a leading part in the establishment of mechanics' institutes in the north of England. He was a fellow of the London Geological Society, and contributed papers to its 'Transactions.' He also prepared with John Lindley [q. v.] 'The Fossil Flora of Great Britain,' London, 1831-7 (3 vols.) On leaving Newcastle in 1846, Hutton settled at Malta, but returned to Newcastle in 1857, and afterwards removed to West Hartlepool, where he died 20 Nov. 1860. His portrait, by Carrick, is in the possession of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers at Newcastle-on-Tyne. After his death Professor G. A. Lebour edited from his papers and from those of Dr. Lindley 'Illustrations of Fossil Plants,' London, 1877; this was published for the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and contained a reproduction of Carrick's portrait of Hutton. Hutton's valuable collections of fossils, which passed to the council of the Mining Institute, is now partly in the Museum of the Natural History Society at Newcastle, and partly in the Museum of the Durham College of Physical Science in the same town.

[Gent. Mag. 1861 i. 111; Stockton and Hartlepool Mercury, 24 Nov. 1860; Ormerod's Cat. Geol. Soc. Proc.; Mr. R. Howse's Cat. of … Hutton Collection … in Nat. Hist. Soc. Museum in Soc. Trans. x. 191; Tyneside Nat. Field Club, v. 21; information kindly sent by Mr. Richard Howse.]

W. A. J. A.

HUTTON, WILLIAM (1736?–1811), antiquary, born in 1735 or 1736, was the second son of George Hutton (d. 1736) of Overthwaite in the parish of Beetham, Westmoreland, by Eleanor, daughter of William Tennant of York and Bedale, Yorkshire (Burke, Landed Gentry, 7th ed. i. 962). In 1760 he became curate and in September 1762 rector of Beetham (a family living). He died in August 1811 (Gent. Mag. 1811, pt. ii. p. 291). By his wife Lucy, third daughter of Rigby Molyneux, M.P. for Preston, he had two sons. He wrote a curious tract in imitation of the provincial dialect entitled 'A Bran New Wark, by William de Worfat [Overthwaite], containing a true Calendar of his Thoughts concerning good nebberhood. Now first printed fra his M.S. for the use of the hamlet of Woodland,' of which fifty copies were printed at Kendal in 1785. Another edition was subsequently issued with a few variations. The tract was reprinted by the English Dialect Society in 1879. Hutton kept a large folio book called the 'Repository' in the vestry of Beetham Church, in which he entered a record of parish affairs from an early period (Burn and Nicolson, Westmoreland and Cumberland, i. 219). It has been carefully preserved and continued by his successors.

[Authorities quoted.]

G. G.

HUXHAM, JOHN, M.D. (1692–1768), physician, born at Totnes, Devonshire, in 1692, was son of a butcher. Left an orphan early, he had as guardian a nonconformist minister, who placed him at the school of Isaac Gilling [q. v.] of Newton Abbot, and afterwards sent him to the dissenting academy at Exeter. On 7 May 1715 he entered as a student under Boerhaave at Leyden, but being unable to stay the requisite three years, he graduated M.D. at Rheims in 1717. He took a house at Totnes, but soon moved to Plymouth. The dissenters generally consulted him, but his practice did not grow as fast as he wished, and he is accused of having resorted to artifices to increase his notoriety, such as being called out of a conventicle during the preaching, galloping through the town, and affecting extreme gravity. He afterwards conformed to the established church. According to the customs of the time, he walked with a gold-headed cane, followed by