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Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 28.djvu/407

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Hyde
Hyde
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his brothers, and Edward, first earl of Clarendon, his first cousin. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple 7 Feb. 1617, was appointed Lent reader there in 1638, and became a serjeant-at-law in May 1640. In the time of Lord Coke he attended as reporter in the king's bench. He was recorder of Salisbury as early as 1638, when complaints were made against him for his remissness in collecting ship-money. He represented Salisbury in the Long parliament, professed loyalist principles, voted against the bill for the attainder of Strafford, and was accordingly included in the list of the minority, whose names were placarded as betrayers of their country. Having joined the king at Oxford, he was voted a malignant by parliament, and incapacitated from sitting in the house. He was committed to the Tower from 4 to 18 Aug. 1645, and on 11 May 1646 was deprived of the recordership of Salisbury, He then retired into private life. In 1651 Charles II during his flight from Worcester was sheltered for some days in his house at Heale (Clarendon, vi. 340; Parl. Hist. ii. 622, 756, iii. 219). During the protectorate he occasionally practised his profession, and his name occurs in the reports of Siderfin and Hardres. At the Restoration he was knighted, and appointed a judge of the common pleas, 31 May 1660, and on 14 June 1660 was reinstated in the recordership of Salisbury. He was also a commissioner upon the trial of the regicides, but took no part beyond advising upon points of law (see State Trials, v. 1030, xiv. 1312). Thanks to his cousin's influence, he was promoted to be chief justice of the king's bench on 19 Oct. 1663. He is said to have been an authority upon pleas of the crown, but was not learned otherwise. Upon the trials of Twyn for printing a book called 'A Treatise of the Execution of Justice,' and of Benjamin Keach at Aylesbury for publishing 'The Child's Instructor,' he took a tone very hostile to dissenters and seditious books (see Raymond, Reports, vi. 515, 700). He was not, however, always opposed to non-conformists (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1663).

He died suddenly on the bench on 1 May 1665, and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral. His wife was Mary, sister of Francis Baber, M.D., of Chew Magna, Somerset, but he had no children. By the demise of his brother Lawrence he came into possession of the Heale estates in the Amesbury valley, and these, with his collection of heirlooms, he settled on the issue of his brother Alexander [q. v.], bishop of Salisbury.

[Foss's Lives of the Judges; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser.vi. 65; Hoare's Modern Wiltshire; Campbell's Chief Justices.]

J. A. H.


HYDE, THOMAS (1524–1597), Roman catholic exile, born at Newbury, Berkshire, was connected with the family to which Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, belonged [q. v.] He became at the age of thirteen (1537) a scholar of Winchester, and proceeded to New College, Oxford, where he was elected fellow in 1543, and graduated B.A. in October 1545 and M.A. in 1549 (Kirby, Winchester Scholars, p. 121; Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 211). He resigned his fellowship at New College in 1550, and in 1551 succeeded Everard as headmaster of Winchester. He was installed a prebendary of Winchester on 23 June 1556 (Le Neve, Fasti, iii. 33). As a fervent catholic, 'very stiff and perverse,' he was forced to resign his offices after Elizabeth's accession, and was ordered to the custody of the lord treasurer by the ecclesiastical commissioners in 1561 (Stype, Annals, ed. 1824, vol. i. pt. i. p.414). He, however, escaped abroad, and lived for some years at Louvain, where he was much esteemed by the other exiles. Cardinal Allen commends his counsel and abilities in a letter dated 1579. He afterwards removed to Douay, where he boarded with a printer's widow. He died there on 9 May 1597, and was buried in the lady chapel of St. James's Church. Pits praises his strict life and conversation, his great gravity and severity, his fierce hatred of vice and heresy.

While at Louvain Hyde published his principal work (Wood credits him with others, but does not name them): 'A Consolatorie Epistle to the Afflicted Catholikes. Being a Dissuasive against frequenting Protestant Churches, and an Exhortation to Suffer with Patience. Set foorth by Thomas Hide, Priest,' Louvain, 1579, 8vo; 2nd edition, with three woodcuts, 1580. A copy of the later edition only is in the British Museum.

[Pits, ed. 1619, p. 795; Wood's Athenæ (Bliss), i. 659; Wood's Fasti, i. 121, 128; Dodd's Church Hist., ed. 1691, i. 250; Gillow's Dict.]

E. T. B.


HYDE, THOMAS, D.D. (1636–1703), orientalist, was born 29 June 1636 at Billingsley, near Bridgnorth in Shropshire, of which his father, Ralph, was vicar. He received his first instruction in oriental languages from his father. At the age of sixteen he proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, where he became a pupil of Wheelock, the professor of Arabic. He now devoted himself particularly to Persian, and, on Wheelock's recommendation, assisted Walton in the publication of the Persian and Syriac versions of the Polyglott Bible. For this work he transcribed into its proper alpha-