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British embassy there. On 19 June 1839 he married Augusta Marie Minna Catherine, younger daughter of Admiral Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons, the ambassador at Athens. Soon after his marriage Fitzalan made at Paris the acquaintance of the Count de Montalembert, who became his intimate friend and biographer. At Paris Fitzalan regularly attended the services at Notre Dame, and formally joined the Roman catholic communion, becoming, according to Montalembert, 'the most pious layman of our times.' Thenceforward Fitzalan only took part in public life when some opportunity presented itself for furthering the interests of his coreligionists. On the death of his grandfather, Bernard Edward, twelfth duke of Norfolk [q.v.], in March 1842, Fitzalan assumed the title of Earl of Arundel and Surrey. Associated with the whigs from his entrance into the House of Commons, he found himself at last constrained to break away from them when they introduced the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill in 1850. His father, to whom he owed his seat, resolutely supported the bill, but he as resolutely opposed it at every stage.

When it became law he resigned his seat as representative of the family borough, and was at once returned as member for the city of Limerick, its representative, John O'Connell, one of the sons of the Liberator, retiring in his favour. On the dissolution of parliament in July 1852 he finally retired from the House of Commons. He took his seat in the House of Lords as Duke of Norfolk on the death of his father in February 1856. Disapproval of Lord Palmerston's policy led him to decline the order of the Garter when offered to him by that minister. He died at Arundel Castle on 25 Nov. 1860, aged 45. A pastoral letter, containing a panegyric by Cardinal Wiseman, was read in all the catholic churches in the diocese of Westminster on Sunday, 2 Dec. He administered his vast patrimony with rare liberality. The cardinal said of his charity: 'There is not a form of want or a peculiar application of alms which has not received his relief or co-operation.' By his wife, who survived him till 22 March 1886, he had three sons and eight daughters. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded as fifteenth duke, and his eldest daughter married J. R. Hope-Scott [q. v.]

The duke published: 1. 'A Few Remarks on the Social and Political Condition of British Catholics,' London, 1847, 8vo. 2. 'Letter to J. P. Plumptre, M.P., on the Bull "In Coena Domini,"' London, 1848, 8vo. 3. 'Observations on Diplomatic Relations with Rome,' London, 1848, 8vo, pp. 10. He also edited from the original manuscripts the 'Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, and of Anne Dacres, his wife,' London, 1857, 8vo; 2nd edit., 1861.

[Personal recollections; Montalembert's monograph on Le Due de Norfolk in Le Correspondant, pp. 766-76, 25 Dec. 1860; Cardinal Wiseman's Pastoral, reprinted in the Times, 4 Dec. 1860; memoir in the Morning Star, 27 Nov. 1860; account of funeral in Times of same date; Tablet, 1 Dec. 1860, p. 760; Ann. Reg. 1860, p. 476; Gent. Mag. January 1861, p. 98.]

C. K.

HOWARD, HUGH (1675–1737), portrait-painter and collector of works of art, born in Dublin 7 Feb. 1675, was eldest son of Dr. Ralph Howard [q. v.] of Shelton, co. Wicklow. He came with his father to England in 1688, and showing a taste for painting joined in 1697 the suite of Thomas Herbert, eighth earl of Pembroke [q.v.], one of the plenipotentiaries for the treaty of Ryswyck, on a journey through Holland to Italy. He remained in Italy about three years, returning to England in October 1700. After spending some years in Dublin, Howard settled in London, where he practised for some time as a portrait-painter. He obtained, however, the sinecure post of keeper of the state papers, and was subsequently appointed paymaster of the works belonging to the crown. He was thus enabled to relinquish painting as a profession. Howard was a profound student, with a good knowledge and powers of discernment in the critical study of art. The emoluments of his various posts, added to a good private income and economical habits, enabled him to collect prints, drawings, medals, &c., on a large scale. Howard executed a few etchings, including one of Padre Resta, the collector; twenty-one drawings by him, including a portrait of Cardinal Albani, and some caricatures, are in the print room in the British Museum. Matthew Prior wrote a poem in his honour. Howard died in Pall Mall 17 March 1737, and was buried in the church at Richmond, Surrey. He made a fortunate marriage in 1714 with Thomasine, daughter and heiress of General Thomas Langston.

Howard inherited in 1728 part of Lord-chancellor West's library from his younger brother, William Howard, M.P. for Dublin. He left his collections to his only surviving brother, Robert Howard, bishop of Elphin [see under Howard, Ralph], who removed them to Ireland. They remained in the possession of the latter's descendants, the Earls of Wicklow, until December 1873, when the fine collection of prints and drawings, many of which were from the collections of Sir Peter Lely and the Earl of Arundel, were