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bour and Wages and the Effect of Machinery upon them,' 1859. 3. 'Steam Culture, its History and proper application,' 1862. 4. 'A Trip to America, two Lectures,' revised edition, privately printed, 8vo, Bedford, 1867. 5. 'A Visit to Egypt,' 1867. 6. 'A Scheme of National Education for Rural Districts,' 1868. 7. ' Continental Farming and Peasantry,' 8vo, London, 1870. 8. 'Science and Revelation not antagonistic,' 1872. 9. 'Our Villages, their Sanitary Condition,' 1874. 10. 'Our Meat Supply,' 1876. 11. 'Depression in Agriculture,' 1879. 12. 'Agricultural Implement Manufacture, its Rise and Progress,' 1879. 13. 'Laying down Land to Grass,' 1880. 14. 'The English Land Question, Past and Present,' 1881. 15. 'The Physiology of Breeding, and the Management of Pigs,' 1881. 16. 'Landowning as a Business,' 1882. 17. ' Foot and Mouth Disease,' 1883. 18. 'The Farmers and the Tory Party,' 1883. 19. 'Haymaking,' 1886. 20. 'The Science of Trade,' 1887. 21. 'Butterine Legislation,' 1887. 22. 'Gold and Silver Supply, or the Influence of Currency upon the Prices of Farm Produce,' 1888. 23. 'An Estimate of the Annual Amount realized by the Sale of the Farm Products of the United Kingdom … calculated upon the average of the Seasons of 1885, 1886, and 1887,' 1888.

[Private information; Gardener's Chronicle, 23 Dec. 1871 (with portrait); Agricultural Gazette, 28 Jan. and 4 Feb. 1889; Bedfordshire Times, 2 Feb. 1889; Bedford Mercury, 2 Feb. 1889; Bedfordshire Standard, 2 Feb. 1889; Times, 26 Jan. 1889; Daily News, 26 Jan. 1889.]

G. G.

HOWARD, JOHN, first Duke of Norfolk of the Howard family (1430?–1485), son and heir of Sir Robert Howard by Margaret, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (d. 1399), and cousin and ultimately coheiress of John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (d. 1475), is supposed to have been born about 1430. His first recorded service is dated 1452, when he followed Lord L'Isle to Guienne, and was present at the battle of Chastillon on 17 July 1453. He entered the service of his kinsman John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (d. 1461), and on 8 July 1455 the duchess wrote to John Paston [q. v.] desiring him that, as it was 'right necessarie that my lord have at this tyme in the parliament suche persons as longe unto him and be of his menyall servaunts,' he would forward the election of Howard as knight of the shire for Norfolk. The Duke of York also wrote on his behalf. Some at least of the Norfolk gentry were indignant at having 'a straunge man' forced or them, and the duke was reported to have promised that there should be a free election, which made Howard 'as wode as a bullock,' but in the end he was elected (Paston Letters, i. 337, 340, 341; Return of Members, i. 351). It is evident that he was of service to the Yorkist cause, for on the accession of Edward IV in 1461 he was knighted (Doyle), was appointed constable of Colchester Castle, sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and one of the king's carvers, and was known to have 'great fellowship' with the king. He took an active part in the Duke of Norfolk's quarrel with John Paston; he had a violent brawl with Paston in the shire-house at Norwich in August, and used his influence with the king against him, while Howard's wife declared that if any of her husband's men met with Paston he should 'go no penny for his life' (Paston Letters, ii. 42, 53, 54). As sheriff Howard had given offence at the election of Paston and Berney, and in consequence of the many complaints preferred against him was, in November, it is said, committed to prison (ib. p. 62). His favour with the king was not diminished, for in 1462 he was appointed constable of Norwich Castle, and received grants of several manors forfeited by the Earl of Wiltshire and others. He was joined in a commission with Lords Fauconberg and Clinton to keep the seas; and they made a descent on Brittany, and took Croquet and the Isle of Rhé. Towards the end of the year he served under Norfolk against the Lancastrians in the north, and was sent by the duke from Newcastle to help the Earl of Warwick at Warkworth, and in the spring of 1464 was with Norfolk in Wales when the duke was securing the country for the king.

Howard returned home on 8 June (1464), and bought the reversion of the constableship of Bamborough Castle, worth ten marks a year, for 20l. and a bay courser (Accounts). During the last weeks of the year he was with the king at Reading, and presented him with a courser worth 40l. and the queen with another worth 8l. as New-year's gifts. On 3 Nov. 1465 he lost his wife Catharine, daughter of William, lord Moleyns, who died at his house at Stoke Nayland, Suffolk (Paston Letters, iii. 486; in 1452 according to Dugdale, Nicolas, and Doyle). In 1466 he was appointed vice-admiral for Norfolk and Suffolk, was building a ship called the Mary Grace, and being charged with the conveyance of envoys to France and the Duke of Burgundy remained at Calais from 15 May to 17 Sept. In the following January he married his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Chedworth, and in April was