was appointed, and in 1687 England was divided by Innocent XI into four ecclesiastical districts, over which vicars-apostolic were appointed to preside [see Giffard, Bonaventure]. Howard was made archpriest of S. Maria Maggiore in 1689, and retained that dignity until his death. Among his friends were the three sons of John Dryden, the youngest of whom, Thomas, joined the Dominican order by his advice.
He viewed with dismay the reckless policy pursued by James II, and his alarm was shared by Innocent XI. Every letter which Howard sent from the Vatican to Whitehall 'recommended patience, moderation, and respect for the prejudices of the English people' (Macaulay, Hist. of England, ch. iv.) Burnet visited Rome in August 1685, before James had entered on his violent policy, and he was treated by the cardinal 'with great freedom.' The cardinal told him (Own Time, ed. 1724, i. 66) 'that all the advices writ over from thence to England were for slow, calm, and moderate courses. He said he wished he was at liberty to show me the copies of them. But he saw violent courses were more acceptable, and would probably be followed. And he added that these were the production of England, far different from the counsels of Rome.' But in December 1687 Luttrell mentions a rumour that Howard was to be appointed the king's almoner. When the birth of James Francis Edward, prince of Wales (10 June 1688), was announced at Rome, Howard gave a feast, in which an ox was roasted whole, being stuffed with lambs, fowls, and provisions of all kinds. The incident is commemorated in a scarce print by Vesterhout, entitled 'II Bue Arrostito.'
After the revolution Howard's direct intercourse with England was cut off. In June 1693 he is said to have obtained a papal brief to send to England exhorting the catholics there to remain firm to James II (Luttrell, iii. 108). He died at Rome on 17 June 1694, aged 63, having lived just long enough to see his province restored lastingly, and as fully as the circumstances of the age permitted. He was interred in his titular church, S. Maria sopra Minerva, under a plain slab of white marble, which bears the Howard arms and an epitaph (see the inscription in Notes and Queries, 6th ser. i. 26).
His portrait by Rubens was formerly at Lord Spencer's seat at Wimbledon (Walpole, Anecd. of Painting, ed. 1767, ii. 94). There is a portrait of him in the monastery of the Minerva at Rome; another in the picture gallery at Oxford; a full-length, by Carlo Maratti, at Castle Howard; a half-length, in a square scarlet cap, at Worksop Manor; a similar portrait at Greystoke Castle; and a miniature, painted in oil on copper by an unknown artist, in the National Portrait Gallery. Portraits of him have been engraved by N. Noblin; by J. Van derBruggen, from a painting by Duchatel (one of the finest engravings); by Nicolo Byle; by A. Clouet, in 'Vitæ Pontif. et Cardinalium,' 2 vols. fol. Rome, 1751; by Zucchi; by Poilly; and in the 'Laity's Directory,' 1809, from a large portrait painted at Rome by H. Tilson in 1687. A medal, with his portrait on the obverse, is engraved in Mudie's 'English Medals.'
[The principal authority is the valuable Life of Philip Thomas Howard, O.P., Cardinal of Norfolk, by Father Charles Ferrers Raymund Palmer, O.P., London, 1867, 8vo, based mainly on original records in the archives of the English Dominican friars; consult also Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 531; Gillow's Dict. of English Catholics; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 445; Stothart's Catholic Mission in Scotland, p. 197; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. (Bliss), i. 622; Godwin, De Præsulibus (Richardson), ii. 798; Collins's Peerage, 1779, i. 126; Gent. Mag. vol. xciii. pt. i. p. 412; Granger's Biog. Hist. of England, 5th edit. v. 89; Scharf's Cat. of Nat. Portrait Gallery, 1888, p. 232; Sir T. Browne's Works (Wilkin), i. 47; Husenbeth's English Colleges on the Continent, pp. 41, 94; Pepys's Diary, 23 Jan. 1666-1667; Evelyn's Diary (Bray), i. 365, ii. 45; Evelyn's Sylva, 1776, p. 394; Howard's Indication of Memorials of the Howard Family, pp. 37-39; Archæological Journal, xii. 65; Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. viii. 53, 75; Cat. of Dawson Turner's MSS. p. 27; Dublin Review, new ser. xi. 275; Secretan's Life of Robert Nelson, pp. 23, 36; Pennant's Journey from Dover to the Isle of Wight, p. 99; Strickland's Queens of England, 1851, v. 651,654; Tierney's Hist. of Arundel, pp. 480, 511, 522, 530; Birch MSS. 4274, f. 158; Addit. MSS. 5848 p. 46, 5850 p. 186, 5872 f. 3 b, 15908 ff. 18-26, 20846 f. 346, 23720 ff. 25, 29, 42, 28225 ff. 146, 368, 28226 f. 11.]
HOWARD, RALPH, M.D. (1638–1710), professor of physic at Dublin, born in 1638, was only son of John Howard (d. 1643) of Shelton, co. Wicklow, Ireland, by his wife Dorothea Hasels (d. 1684). He was educated in the university of Dublin, and proceeded M.D. in 1667. He succeeded Dr. John Margetson in 1670 as regius professor of physic in that university, and held the chair until his death. He left Ireland in 1688, and was attainted by James II's parliament in 1689, while his estate in co. Wicklow was handed over to one Hacket, who entertained James at Shelton after the battle of the Boyne. Howard subsequently returned to Dublin and recovered his property. He died on 8 Aug. 1710. He married on 16 July 1668 Catherine,