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NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY



How
Howard
1

HOW. [See Howe.]

HOWARD, ANNE, Lady (1475–1512), daughter of Edward IV. [See under Howard, Thomas, third Duke of Norfolk.]

HOWARD, BERNARD EDWARD, twelfth Duke of Norfolk (1765–1842), born at Sheffield on 21 Nov. 1765, was eldest son of Henry Howard (1713-1787) of Glossop, by Juliana, second daughter of Sir William Molyneux, bart., of Wellow, Nottinghamshire. His father was great-grandson of Henry Frederick, earl of Arundel (1608-1652) [q.v.] On 17 Jan. 1799 he was elected F.R.S., and F.S.A. on 20 Feb. 1812. On 16 Dec. 1815 he succeeded as twelfth Duke of Norfolk his third cousin, Charles, eleventh duke [q.v.] Unlike his predecessors he was a Roman catholic, but by act of parliament passed 24 June 1824, he was allowed to act as earl-marshal. He was made a councillor of the university of London in 1825, was admitted to a seat in the House of Lords, after the Roman Catholic Relief Bill of 1829, was nominated a privy councillor 1830, and was elected K.G. 1834. In parliament he steadily supported the Reform Bill. He died at Norfolk House, St. James's Square, London, on 19 March 1842, and was buried at Arundel. A portrait by Pickersgill has been engraved by Sanders. Norfolk married, on 23 April 1789, Elizabeth Bellasis, daughter of Henry, second earl of Fauconberg, and by her, whom he divorced in 1794, had one son, Henry Charles, thirteenth duke of Norfolk [q.v.] His wife afterwards remarried Richard, earl of Lucan, and died in 1819.

[Doyle's Official Baronage; Burke's Peerage; Gent. Mag. 1842, i. 542.]

W. A. J. A.

HOWARD, CATHERINE, fifth queen of Henry VIII. [See Catherine, d. 1542.]

HOWARD, CHARLES, Lord Howard of Effingham, Earl of Nottingham (1536–1624), lord high admiral, was the eldest son of William, first lord Howard of Effingham (d. 1573) [q.v.], by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity in Glamorganshire and of Margaret, daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe (Collins, v. 120). He is said to have served at sea under his father during the reign of Queen Mary. On the accession of Elizabeth he stepped at once into a prominent position at court. His high birth and connections—the queen was his first cousin once removed—are sufficient to account for his early advancement, even without the aid of a handsome person and courtly accomplishments (Fuller, Worthies of England, 1662, Surrey, p. 83). In 1559 he was sent as ambassador to France to congratulate Francis II on his accession. In the parliament of 1562 he represented the county of Surrey, and in 1569 was general of the horse, under the Earl of Warwick, in the suppression of the rebellion of the north. In 1570, when the young queen of Spain went from Flanders, Howard was appointed to command a strong squadron of ships of war, nominally as a guard of honour for her through the English seas, but really to provide against the possibility of the queen's voyage being used as the cloak of some act of aggression (Camden in Kennett, History of England, ii. 430; Cal. State Papers, Dom., 29 and 31 Aug. and 2 Oct. 1570). Hakluyt adds that he 'environed the Spanish fleet in most strange and warlike sort, and enforced them to stoop gallant and to vail their bonnets for the queen of England' (Principal Navigations, vol. i. Epistle Dedicatorie addressed to Howard). It is supposed that it was at this time that Howard was knighted. In the parliament of 1572 he was again