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good intentions. He took up the project of marrying Mary, because he believed that his position in England was a sufficient guarantee against all risks. He trusted to his personal popularity, and to the exertions of others. His first failure did not teach him wisdom. He probably supposed that he had not committed himself to Ridolfi or the Spanish ambassador; he had only allowed them to count on him for the time being. The highest testimony to his personal character is to be found in his letter to his children, written just after his trial (Wright, Queen Elizabeth and her Times, i. 402, &c.) Thomas Howard (1561-1626), first earl of Suffolk, and Lord William Howard (1563-1640), Norfolk's two sons by his second wife, are separately noticed. By his second wife he also had three daughters, the second of whom, Margaret (1562-1591), married Robert Sackville, earl of Dorset (pedigree in Ashstead and its Howard Possessors).

There are traces of Norfolk's taste to be found in the Charterhouse, which he bought in 1565, and adorned for his London residence, when it was known as Howard House (Chronicles of the Charterhouse, p. 161, &c.) There are portraits of him as a young man in the royal collection and at Arundel; by Sir Antonio More at Worksop, engraved in Lodge's ‘Portraits;’ another engraving is by Houbraken. He was buried in the chapel of the Tower.

[Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 276; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 594-5; Collins's Peerage, i. 102-8; Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk, iii. 165-6; Dallaway and Cartwright's Sussex, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 198; Haynes and Murdin's Burghley Papers; Lodge's Illustrations of Brit. Hist.; Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times; Sadleir's State Papers; Labanoff's Lettres de Marie Stuart, vols. ii. and iii.; Howell's State Trials, i. 953, &c.; Goodall's Examination of the Letters of Mary Queen of Scots, App.; Anderson's Collections relating to Mary, vol. iii.; Stephenson and Crosby's Calendars of State Papers; Thorpe's Scottish Cal. vol. ii.; Cal. of Hatfield MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm.; Howard's Memorials of the Howards; Froude's Hist. of England; Camden's Annals of Elizabeth; Sanford and Townsend's Great Governing Families of England, ii. 336-43].

M. C.

HOWARD, THOMAS, first Earl of Suffolk (1561–1626), born on 24 Aug. 1561, was the second son of Thomas, fourth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], who was attainted, by his second wife, Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas, lord Audley of Walden. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and was restored in blood as Lord Thomas Howard on 19 Dec. 1584 (Lords' Journ. ii. 76). Howard accompanied as a volunteer the fleet sent to oppose the Spanish Armada, and in the attack off Calais displayed such valour that he was knighted at sea by the lord high admiral on 25 June 1588, and was afterwards made captain of a man-of-war. On 5 March 1591 he was appointed commander of the squadron which attacked, in the face of overwhelming difficulties, the Spanish treasure ships off the Azores, when Sir Richard Grenville [q.v.] was killed (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1591-4, pp. 37, 61). In May 1596 he was admiral of the third squadron in the fleet sent against Cadiz. On his return he was created K.G., 23 April 1597, and in the following June sailed as vice-admiral of the fleet despatched to the Azores. His ability and courage commended him to the favour of the queen, who in her letters to Essex was wont to refer to him as her ‘good Thomas’ (ib. Dom. 1595-7, p. 453). It is said that he endeavoured to compose the differences between Essex and Raleigh. On 5 Dec. 1597 he was summoned to parliament as Baron Howard de Walden, and became lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely on 8 April 1598, and admiral of a fleet on 10 Aug. 1599. In February 1601 he was marshal of the forces which besieged the Earl of Essex in his house in London, and on the 19th he sat as one of the peers on the trials of the Earls of Essex and Southampton, being at the time constable of the Tower of London. He was sworn high steward of the university of Cambridge in February 1601 (Cooper, Annals of Cambr. ii. 602), lord-lieutenant of Cambridgeshire on 26 June 1602, and acting lord chamberlain of the household on 28 Dec. (Sidney Papers, ii. 262). Before going to Richmond, in January 1603, the queen visited Howard at the Charterhouse, and was sumptuously entertained (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1601-3, p. 285). On the accession of James I Howard met him at Theobalds, was made a privy councillor on 4 May 1603 (Stow, Annales, ed. Howes, p. 822), and acted from that day until 10 July 1614 as lord chamberlain of the household. Howard was created Earl of Suffolk on 21 July 1603, and was appointed one of the commissioners for making knights of the Bath at the coronation of the king. He became joint-commissioner for the office of earl-marshal of England on 4 Feb. 1604, and joint-commissioner to expel Jesuits and seminary and other priests on 5 Sept. following; he honourably, in 1604, refused a Spanish pension, though his wife accepted one of 1,000l. a year, and she supplied information from time to time in return (Gardiner, Hist. of Engl. i. 215). Howard himself complained bitterly to Winwood that he and his family were suspected of endeavouring to persuade the king to ally himself with Spain (Winwood, Memorials, ii.