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Howard
Howard
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deals with his various artistic transactions. In Additional MS. 15970 are many letters to ‘good Mr. Petty,’ who was his chaplain and his agent at Rome. Writing on one occasion from Frankfort, 5 Dec. 1636, he says: ‘I wish you sawe the Picture of a Madonna of [Dürer], which the Bishoppe of Wirtzberge gave me last weeke as I passed by that way, and though it were painted at first upon an uneven board and is vernished, yet it is more worth then all the toyes I have gotten in Germanye, and for such I esteeme it, having ever carried it in my owne coach since I had it: and howe then doe you think I should valewe thinges of Leonardo, Raphaell, Corregio, and such like?’ Again, in the same year, when at Nuremberg, he bought the Pirkheymer Library, which had belonged to the kings of Hungary, and was presented, through Evelyn's efforts, by Arundel's son to the Royal Society. In the same way he acquired the intaglios and medals from Daniel Rice. He always gave instructions that his purchases should be conveyed to England by the shortest sea route. Sir William Russell, writing from the Hague in the beginning of 1637, says: ‘The ship wherein his goods were fraughted (amongst which are many thousands most excellent pieces of painting and Bookes which his Lordship gathered in his journey) is still at the Rotterdam, kept in with the ice ever since his Lordship parted’ (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. App. p. 554). He bought many pictures, &c., from Henry Vanderborcht of Brussels, and employed Vanderborcht's son, a painter and engraver, to collect for him, and also to draw his curiosities. He arranged his collections in the galleries of Arundel House, London. Ultimately he deposited there 37 statues, 128 busts, 250 inscribed marbles, exclusive of sarcophagi, altars, and fragments, besides pictures, chiefly those of Hans Holbein, gems, &c. Selden described the marbles in his ‘Marmora Arundeliana,’ London, 1628, afterwards incorporated in Prideaux's ‘Marmora Oxoniensia,’ 1676. The countess received part of these treasures, most of which she bequeathed to her son, William, viscount Stafford, and this portion of the property was sold by auction by Stafford's successors in 1720. Arundel's grandson, Henry, sixth duke of Norfolk [q.v.], inherited the chief portion of the collection. He gave many of the statues and inscribed marbles (the famous Arundel marbles) to the university of Oxford in 1667. Other of the statues were sold later to William Fermor, lord Leominster [q. v.], whose daughter-in-law, Henrietta Louisa Fermor, countess of Pomfret [q. v.], presented these also to Oxford in 1755. In 1685, and again in 1691, the sixth Duke of Norfolk's son, Henry, seventh duke [q. v.], directed sales of the paintings and drawings, retaining only a few family pictures. When his wife left him in 1685, she carried with her the cabinets and gems, leaving them in 1705 to her second husband, Sir John Germain [q. v.], whose widow, Lady Betty, bestowed some of them on Sir Charles Spencer and the Duke of Marlborough. The coins and medals were bought by Heneage Finch, second earl of Winchilsea [q. v.], and were sold by his executors in 1696. The famous bust of Homer passed through the hands of Dr. Meade and the Earl of Exeter before it reached the British Museum.

There are several portraits of Arundel. In 1618 Van Somer painted him with his wife, and there is a portrait by Vandyck in the Sutherland Gallery, which has been engraved by Tardieu, W. Sharp, and Tomkins. A half-length painting by Rubens is at Castle Howard, and was engraved by Houbraken. Vandyck designed a family group, which was afterwards finished by Frutiers.

[The most detailed memoir is in Lloyd's Memoirs, ed. 1677, p. 284; cf. also Ashtead and its Howard Possessors; Doyle's Baronage; Sir Edward Walker's Historical Observations, ed. 1705, p. 209; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum, i. 292; Collins's Peerage, ed. 1779, i. 110; Gardiner's Hist. passim; Camden's Annals of King James I, p. 642; Stow's Annals, p. 918; Historical Anecdotes of some of the Howard Family, by C. Howard, 1817, p.75; The Howard Papers, by H. K. Staple Causton; Lives of Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, and Anne Dacres, his Wife, 1837, p. 167; Tierney's Hist. of Arundel; Blomefield's Norfolk, i. 239; Lodge's Illustrations, iii. 331, &c.; Nichols's Progresses of James I, ii. 5, 141; Allen's Lambeth, p. 309; Lords' Journals; State Papers, &c. There are letters from and to the earl in Clarendon's Correspondence, in Sir Thomas Roe's Negotiations, pp. 334, 444, 495, at the College of Arms, and in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 15970. Many references to him are also in Evelyn's Diary; authorities quoted.]

E. T. B.

HOWARD, WALTER (1759–1830?), called the 'Heir of Poverty,' born on 19 May 1759, was son of William Howard, by Catherine Titcombe of St. Helier, Jersey, and grandson of Charles Francis Howard of Overacres, and lord of Redesdale, Northumberland. His father claimed kinship with the ducal family of Norfolk; in 1750 he sold Overacres, the seigniories of Redesdale and Harbottle, and the advowson of Elsdon, Northumberland, to the Earl of Northumberland, and thenceforward appears to have been supported by Edward Howard, duke of Norfolk (1686-1777) [q.v.] Walter was sent by the duke to the college at St. Omer, but, being a pro-