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Howard
Howard
79

for her marriage; personally he favoured an Austrian alliance. In August 1564 he accompanied the queen on a visit to Cambridge; he lodged in Trinity Hall, and was created M.A. He took the queen's part against the northern earls in the rebellion of 1569, and in 1572 ceased to be lord chamberlain on becoming lord privy seal. Holinshed says that he died at Hampton Court on 12 Jan. 1573, others that his death took place at his house at Reigate. He was buried in Reigate Church. In the latter part of his life he bought considerable estates in Surrey, besides those which he had by royal grant; but in 1567 he complained of poverty, and it seems that he would have been made an earl had he had the necessary property. In his will he began a clause making a bequest to the queen, but left it blank. A portrait which has been engraved is in the possession of the Earl of Effingham.

Howard married first, before 1531, Katherine (d.1535), daughter of John Boughton of Tuddington, Bedfordshire, by whom he had a daughter Agnes, who married William Paulet, third marquis of Winchester (cf. Letters and Papers Henry VIII, v. 149; some curious particulars as to the daughter's marriage will be found in Wills from Doctors' Commons, Camd. Soc., ed. Bruce, p.31); secondly, before 1536, Margaret (d. 1581), daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity, Glamorganshire. The letter of London to Lord Lisle (ib. vi. 322), giving an account of the festivities at the second marriage as occurring in 1533, must be misdated, if the first wife's epitaph in the Howard Chapel at Lambeth is correct. By his second wife he had, besides other issue, two sons, Charles, who is separately noticed, and William, afterwards Sir William of Lingfield.

[Authorities quoted; Howard's Indications of Memorials of the Howard Family; Cal. of State Papers, passim; Froude's Hist. of England; Burton's Hist. of Scotland, 2nd ed. iii. 161; Lindsay of Pitscottie's Chron.; Tytler's Hist. of Scotland; Stow's Annals; Acts of the Privy Council; Manning's Surrey, i. 277, &c., iii. 505; G. E. C.'s Peerage; Burke's Peerage; Camden's Ann. ed. Hearne, ii. 284; Burnet's Hist. of the Ref. ed. Pocock, vols. i. ii.iii.; Machyn's Diary; Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, ed. J. G. Nichols (Camd. Soc.), pp. 41, 43, &c.; Wriothesley's Chronicle, ed. Hamilton (Camd. Soc.), i. 21, 132, 133, ii. 109, 110, 117, 118; Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 32646, ff. 59-71; MS. Cotton,Calig.B.ii.233; Cooper's Athenæ Cantabr. i. 308, 559; Literary Remains of Edward VI, ed. Nichols (Roxburghe Club), xxiv, xxv, cclviii, cclix, ccci, ccciii, 260, 271, 358, 363, 384, 461; Strype's Annals and Eccl. Mem.; paper by G. Leveson-Gower, F.S.A.,in vol. ix. of Surrey Archæological Collections.]

W. A. J. A.

HOWARD, Lord WILLIAM (1563–1640), 'Belted Will,' was the third son of Thomas Howard III, fourth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], by his second wife Margaret, daughter of Lord Audley. He was born at Audley End, Essex, on 19 Dec. 1563, and his mother died three weeks after his birth. His father soon afterwards married the Dowager Lady Dacre of Gilsland, and betrothed his children to the Dacre heiresses, so that at the age of eight William Howard was contracted to Lady Elizabeth Dacre. He was educated by Gregory Martin, fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, a good scholar, and an adherent of the old religion; but he fled from England before he had time to produce much impression on the boy's mind. The execution of his father in 1572 left the boy under the nominal care of his half-brother, Philip Howard (1557-1595) [q.v.]; but probably he was brought up by the Earl of Arundel, his brother's grandfather on the mother's side. His marriage with Elizabeth Dacre was solemnised at Audley End on 28 Oct. 1577, and after that he proceeded to Cambridge, where he probably entered at St. John's College, as in later life he presented that college with some books 'devotissimæ mentis gratissimum testimonium' (Ornsby, Household Books, p. x, n.) In 1581 he took up his abode with his wife, probably at a house called Mount Pleasant, in Enfield Chase, Middlesex, where his eldest son was born on 6 Dec. 1581. He soon became involved in the fortunes of his brother Philip, earl of Arundel [q.v.]; was imprisoned with him in 1583, and joined the church of Rome in 1584. He was again imprisoned in 1585, when his brother tried to leave the kingdom, but was not arraigned with him, and was released in 1586.

Elizabeth disliked the Howards, and William knew that he was a suspected man. For many years he was involved in lawsuits about his wife's possessions. The claims of the Dacre heiresses had been disputed in 1569 by their uncle, Leonard Dacre, and the dispute was revived by another uncle, Francis Dacre, in 1584. There is a full account of the various suits written by William in Appendix i. to Ornsby's ‘Household Books.’ It is sufficient to say that the claims of Francis Dacre were disallowed; but the knowledge of the unpopularity of the Howards induced a northern neighbour, Gerard Lowther, to set up a title for the queen to the baronies of Gilsland and Brough. The case was tried at Carlisle in 1589, and was unopposed, as Howard was again in prison. Lowther pursued his course of dispossessing the Howards of their lands on the queen's behalf. Elizabeth took possession of most of them, and made Howard