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cester, by whom he left two sons, John and Philip (both dead without issue in 1729).

[Munk's Coll. of Phys.i. 453; Peacock's Leyden Students (Index Soc.), p. 51; Rogers's Life of John Howe, p. 330.]

C. C.

HOWE, JAMES (1780–1836), animal painter, was born 30 Aug. 1780 at Skirling in Peeblesshire, where his father, William Howe, was minister from 1765 till his death 10 Dec. 1796. After attending the parish school Howe was apprenticed to a house-painter at Edinburgh, but employed his time in painting panoramic exhibitions, devoting himself especially to animals. Howe obtained a great reputation for his skill in drawing horses and cattle, and was employed in drawing portraits of well-known animals for a series of illustrations of British domestic animals, published by the Highland Society of Scotland to stimulate breeding. He was also commissioned by Sir John Sinclair to draw examples of various breeds of cattle. A set of fourteen engravings of horses from drawings by Howe were published and, for the most part, engraved by W. H. Lizars [q. v.], at Edinburgh in 1824, and a series of forty-five similar engravings of horses and cattle was published in 1832. Howe came once to London to paint the horses of the royal stud, but resided principally at Edinburgh, where he was a frequent exhibitor at the Edinburgh exhibitions, Royal Institution, and Royal Scottish Academy from 1808 to the time of his death. In 1815 he visited the field of Waterloo, and painted a picture of the battle, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in London in 1816. Howe died at Edinburgh, 11 July 1836.

[Anderson's Scottish Nation; Jos. Irving's Book of Scotsmen; Bryan's Dict. of Painters and Engravers, ed. R. E. Graves; information from Mr. J. M. Gray.]

L. C.

HOWE, JOHN (1630–1705), ejected divine, son of John and Anne How, was born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 17 May 1630, and baptised at the parish church on 23 May. John How, the father (brother of Obadiah Howe, D.D. [q. v.]), formerly a pupil of Francis Higginson [q. v.], was usher (1627-32) of the school supported by Burton's charity, and curate (1628-34) to John Browne, rector of Loughborough. He was suspended from the ministry, as an `irregular curate,' on 6 Nov. 1634, by the high commission court, was imprisoned, and fined 500l. (reduced to 20l. on 19 Feb. 1635) for praying before sermon 'that the young prince might not be brought up in popery.' In 1635 he made his way to Ireland with his family; during the rebellion of 1641 his place of refuge (probably Coleraine) was for several weeks besieged. Returning to England, he settled in Lancashire, probably serving one of the chapelries dependent on Winwick, where his son was prepared for the university at the grammar school under Ralph Gorse, B.A.

Howe was admitted a sizar at Christ's College, Cambridge, on 17 May 1647; he graduated B.A. in 1648, according to Calamy, who ascribes his 'platonick tincture' to his knowledge of Cudworth and his lasting friendship with Henry More. In Michaelmas term 1648 he removed to Oxford, as bible-clerk of Brasenose; here he graduated B.A. on 18 Jan. 1650. In 1650 he was elected chaplain of Magdalen; he graduated M.A. on 9 July 1652, and was fellow of Magdalen probably from 1652 to 1655. He was admitted on 'catholic terms' to the president's 'church meeting' [see Goodwin, Thomas]. Shortly after graduating M.A. he was ordained at Winwick. This large parish was included in the fourth Lancashire classis; but Howe was ordained by Charles Herle [q. v.], the rector (whom he revered as a 'primitive bishop'), with his curates in the four chapelries.

About 1654 (perhaps earlier) he was appointed to the perpetual curacy of Great Torrington, Devonshire, a donative belonging to Christ Church, Oxford. He found the parishioners divided; his predecessor, Lewis Stukely, was an independent; he himself ranked with the presbyterians; but he drew parties together, and succeeded in establishing at Torrington a meeting of 'neighbouring ministers of different persuasions.' His labours were unremitting; on fast days he was engaged in the pulpit from nine till four with only a quarter of an hour's recess, during which the people sang. But his stay at Torrington was not long. In 1656 the perpetual curacy of St. Saviour's, Dartmouth, Devonshire, was vacant. The parishioners were equally divided between Howe and another candidate, Robert Jagoe. Thomas Boon, Howe's great friend at Dartmouth, made interest with Cromwell for his appointment. Cromwell insisted on hearing Howe preach at Whitehall, and gave him his text `while the psalm was singing' before sermon. Howe preached for two hours, and was turning the hour-glass for the third time when Cromwell signed to him to stop. In the event Cromwell made him his domestic chaplain. Howe took the office with reluctance, and was not easy in it. To his puritan strictness the life at Whitehall seemed `in so loose a way' as to give him small chance of usefulness. His parishioners at Torrington could not agree on his successor, and besought him to return. Baxter's influence prevailed with