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Jackson's first book was ‘A Treatise on the Fevers of Jamaica,’ 1791 (reprinted at Philadelphia in 1795, and in German at Leipzig in 1796), the result of his early experience as an assistant. He recommends the treatment of fevers by cold affusion, which was afterwards advocated by Currie, and by himself in a special essay published at Edinburgh in 1808. His San Domingo experiences of 1796 were embodied in his next work, ‘An Outline of the History and Cure of Fever, Epidemic and Contagious, more especially of Jails, Ships, and Hospitals, and the Yellow Fever. With Observations on Military Discipline and Economy, and a Scheme of Medical Arrangement for Armies,’ Edinburgh, 1798; German edition, Stuttgart, 1804. The subject last in the title he took up again in 1804 and expanded into his best-known work, ‘A Systematic View of the Formation, Discipline, and Economy of Armies,’ which was republished by him at Stockton in 1824, and finally at London in 1845, with portrait and memoir. Part ii. of this work is a philosophical sketch of ‘national military character’ from ancient and modern sources. In 1817 appeared his ‘History and Cure of Febrile Diseases,’ relating chiefly to soldiers in the West Indies, 1819; 2nd edit., enlarged to 2 vols., 1820. His ‘Observations of the Yellow Fever in Spain’ was published in 1821. In 1823 he published at Stockton ‘An Outline of Hints for the Political Organization and Moral Training of the Human Race.’ Besides studying Arabic for its biblical interest he became a student of Gaelic in connection with the Ossian controversy.

Both as an administrative reformer and as a writer on fevers Jackson holds a distinguished place. He was philosophically inclined, modest, and zealous for the public interests.

[Memoir prefixed to 3rd edit. (1845) of his Formation, Discipline, and Economy of Armies, drawn up from his own papers and from recollections by Borland; medical notice by Dr. Thomas Barnes in Trans. Prov. Med. and Engl. Assoc.; Gent. Mag. June 1827, p. 566.]

C. C.

JACKSON, afterwards SCORESBY-JACKSON, ROBERT EDMUND (1835–1867), biographer and medical writer, was a son of Captain Thomas Jackson of the merchant navy, of Whitby, by Arabella, third and youngest daughter of William Scoresby the elder, and sister of William Scoresby, D.D. [q. v.], the well-known arctic explorer and divine. He was born at Whitby in 1835. Jackson was educated for the medical profession at St. George's Hospital, London, at Paris, and afterwards at Edinburgh, where he devoted himself especially to the study of materia medica under Professor (afterwards Sir) Robert Christison. He took the degree of M.D. in 1857, writing a thesis on ‘Climate, Health, and Disease,’ a subject on which he afterwards became an authority. In 1859 he became F.R.C.S., in 1861 F.R.S.E., and in 1862 F.R.C.P. He was lecturer upon materia medica and therapeutics in Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh, and in 1865 was appointed physician to the Royal Infirmary, and soon afterwards lecturer on clinical medicine. On the death of his uncle, William Scoresby, he assumed the additional name of Scoresby. For some time he was chairman of the medical department of the Scottish Meteorological Society. Scoresby-Jackson died at 32 Queen Street, Edinburgh, on 1 Feb. 1867. He married in 1858 the only child of Sir William Johnston of Kirkhill, and by her had two daughters, who survived him. He published, besides occasional papers: 1. ‘A Life of William Scoresby, D.D.,’ London, 1861, 8vo. 2. ‘Medical Climatology: a Topographical and Meteorological Description of Localities resorted to in Winter and Summer by Invalids,’ London, 1862, 12mo; a work based upon the results of personal visits to the chief continental and Mediterranean health resorts between 1855 and 1861. 3. ‘A Note-Book on Materia Medica, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics,’ 1866, a fourth edition of which, revised by F. W. Moinet, M.D., appeared at Edinburgh, 1880.

[Scotsman, 2 Feb. 1867; Edinburgh Medical Journal, March 1867; Lancet, 9 Feb. 1867; British Medical Journal, 9 Feb. 1867; Athenæum, 16 Feb. 1867; Life of William Scoresby; prefaces to his works.]

J. T-t.

JACKSON, SAMUEL (1794–1869), landscape-painter, was born 31 Dec. 1794 at Bristol, where his father was a merchant. He began life in his father's office, but on his death abandoned business in favour of landscape-painting, and became a pupil of Francis Danby [q. v.], who was then residing in Bristol. In 1823 he was elected an associate of the Society of Painters in Water-colours, and during the next twenty-six years contributed forty-six drawings to its exhibitions. All these, with the exception of a few West Indian views, the result of a voyage taken in 1827 for the benefit of his health, illustrated English scenery, which he treated in a pleasing and poetical manner, somewhat resembling that of the two Barrets. In 1833 Jackson was one of the founders of a sketching society at Bristol, to which W. J. Müller, J. Skinner Prout, and other artists who later