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Ferrers, citizen of London; and, thirdly, Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Grevile of Milcote, Warwickshire. He had issue by each marriage.

[Cartwright's Chapters in the Hist. of Yorkshire; Court and Times of James I; Davies's Walks through York; Earl of Strafford's Letters (Knowler), i. 6, 28, 29, 30; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1611–18; Yorkshire Archæolog. and Topogr. Journal, vols. ii. v. vii. viii.]

G. G.

INGRAM, DALE (1710–1793), surgeon, was born in 1710, and, after apprenticeship and study in the country, began practice at Reading, Berkshire, in 1733, and there, in 1743, published ‘An Essay on the Gout.’ Later in that year he emigrated to Barbadoes, where he practised till 1750, when he returned to England and set up as a surgeon and man midwife on Tower Hill, London. In 1751 he published ‘Practical Cases and Observations in Surgery,’ his most important work. It contains records of cases observed in England and the West Indies. He describes one successful and one unsuccessful operation in cases of abdominal wounds penetrating the bowel. He washed the intestine with hot claret, and then stitched the peritoneum to the edge of the wound and the abdominal wall. The procedure is one of the earliest English examples of a method of surgery which has only been universally adopted within the last few years. In 1754 he went to live in Fenchurch Street, London, and in 1755 published ‘An Historical Account of the several Plagues that have appeared in the World since the year 1346.’ It is a mere compilation. On 24 Jan. 1759 he was elected from among five candidates to the office of surgeon to Christ's Hospital, and thenceforward resided there. He sometimes visited Epsom, and in 1767 published ‘An Enquiry as to the Origin of Magnesia Alba,’ the principal saline ingredient of the Epsom springs. A controversy had arisen as to the cause of death of a potman who had received a blow on the head in an election riot at Brentford in 1769, and he published a lengthy pamphlet entitled ‘The Blow, or Inquiry into the Cause of Mr. Clarke's Death at Brentford,’ which demonstrates that blood-poisoning arising from an ill-dressed scalp wound was the true cause of death. In 1777 he published ‘A Strict and Impartial Inquiry into the Cause of Death of the late William Scawen,’ an endeavour to prove that poison had not been administered. In 1790 it was stated that he was too old for his work at Christ's Hospital, and as he would not resign he was superseded in 1791. He died at Epsom on 5 April 1793.

[Works; original journals of Court of Governors of Christ's Hospital, examined by permission of the treasurer; original lists of surgeons in London at Royal College of Surgeons; Index Catalogue of Library of Surgeon-General's Office, Washington, U.S.A.; original parish registers of St. Bartholomew the Less, St. Sepulchre-extra-Newgate and Christ Church, Newgate Street; Gent. Mag. 1793, pt. i. p. 380.]

N. M.

INGRAM, HERBERT (1811–1860), proprietor of the ‘Illustrated London News,’ was born at Boston, Lincolnshire, on 27 May 1811, and was educated at the Boston free school. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to Joseph Clarke, printer, Market Place, Boston. From 1832 to 1834 he worked as a journeyman printer in London, and about 1834 settled at Nottingham as a printer, bookseller, and newsagent, in partnership with his brother-in-law, Nathaniel Cooke. In company with his partner he soon afterwards purchased from T. Roberts, a druggist at Manchester, a receipt for an aperient pill, and employed a schoolmaster to write its history. Ingram claimed to have received from a descendant of Thomas Parr, known as Old Parr, who was said to have lived to the age of one hundred and fifty-two, the secret method of preparing a vegetable pill to which Parr's length of life was attributed (Medical Circular, 23 Feb. 1853, pp. 146–7, 2 March, pp. 167–8). Mainly in order to advertise the pill its proprietors removed to London in 1842.

Meanwhile Ingram had projected an illustrated newspaper. He had long noticed how the demand for the ‘Weekly Chronicle’ increased on the rare occasions when it contained woodcuts, and on 14 May 1842 he and his partner produced the first number of the ‘Illustrated London News.’ Their original design was to make it an illustrated weekly record of crime, but Henry Vizetelly, who was employed on the paper, persuaded Ingram to give it a more general character. The Bow Street police reports were, however, illustrated by Crowquill. The first number of the paper, published at sixpence, contains sixteen printed pages and thirty-two wood-cuts, and twenty-six thousand copies were circulated. The best artists and writers of the day were employed. Frederick William Naylor Bayley, known as Alphabet Bayley, or Omnibus Bayley, was the editor, and John Timbs was the working editor. The newspaper steadily advanced in public favour, and soon had a circulation of sixty-six thousand copies. The Great Exhibition of 1851 gave it a further impetus, and in 1852 a quarter of a million copies of the shilling number illustrating the funeral of the Duke of Wellington are said to have been sold. At Christmas