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to display either. The portraits of him in the National Portrait Gallery are by Kneller and John Riley. In the Stuart Exhibition (1889) were exhibited portraits of him, at various stages of his life, by Vandyck, Lely (cf. Evelyn, ii. 101), Kneller, Dobson, and painters unknown, including one as lord high admiral, together with various miniatures and autographs. There is also a portrait of him by Faithorne. On Christmas day 1686 a large statue of James in Roman habit, by Grinling Gibbons, was erected in the court of Whitehall, facing the new catholic chapel, at the cost of the loyal Toby Rustat. It still stands in Whitehall Gardens (Ellis Correspondence, i. 214 n.; cf. Bramston, p. 253).

[The chief source for the biography of James II is the Life of James II collected out of Memoirs writ with his own Hand, edited from the original Stuart MSS. in Carlton House, by command of the Prince Regent, by his historiographer James Stanier Clarke [q. v.] (2 vols. 4to, London, 1816), with which should in part be compared the extracts in Macpherson's Original Papers, 1775, i. 1–600. This Life, compiled soon after the death of James II by order of his son, was mainly based on the Original Memoirs said to have been finally burnt near St. Omer; it was read and frequently ‘interlined’ by the Old Pretender, from whose hands it ultimately came into those of the Prince Regent. Ranke, in a remarkable appendix to his English History, analyses the sources, and estimates the authenticity, of its several portions. Of part i., down to the Restoration, the bulk was, with James's consent, translated into French, and afterwards authoritatively printed in Ramsey's Vie de Turenne; it chiefly consists of a narrative of the duke's early campaigns. Part ii., which reaches to the death of Charles II, and part iii., comprising the reign of James II, were, like part iv. and last, compiled from his original memoranda and correspondence and from other materials; but he seems to have only superintended the selection as far as 1678. In part iv. the passages quoted from his memoirs, more especially in reference to the war in Ireland, are particularly numerous. Of the materials used by the compilers genuine remains exist in the extracts made from the Memoirs by Carte, and incorporated in his Life of Ormonde (new ed., 6 vols. Oxford, 1851), as well as in those by Macpherson, published in vol. i. of his Original Papers (London, 1775). Carte also came into possession of the papers of Thomas Nairne, now in the Bodleian Library, from which and other sources extracts are likewise supplied by Macpherson. A French translation of the Life was edited by Guizot (4 vols. Paris, 1824–5). The most important among the other sources are the despatches of Barillon in the Paris archives, first largely used by Sir John Dalrymple in his Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. (here cited in 4th ed., 3 vols. 1773), then partly printed by C. J. Fox in the Appendix to his History of the Early Part of the Reign of James II (London, 1808), and since largely used by Mazure, Histoire de la Révolution de 1688 en Angleterre (2nd ed., 4 vols. 1843), and other historians; and, more especially for the Irish episode, the despatches of d'Avaux, of which a collection was printed for the English foreign office. To these materials large additions have been made in the Marquise Campana de Cavelli's monumental Les derniers Stuarts à St. Germain-en-Laye (Paris, 1871, only 2 vols. issued). Other extracts from the Vienna archives are added in O. Klopp's Fall des Hauses Stuart (vols. i–ix., Vienna, 1875–1881), the most exhaustive diplomatic history of the period, written from an imperialist point of view. Many confidential letters from James to the Earl of Dartmouth are cited in Hist. MSS. Comm. 11th Rep. App. pt. v. (1887); valuable information is likewise contained ib. pt. ii. (1887), and 12th Rep. pt. vi. (1889), MSS. of the House of Lords, 1678–88 and 1689–90. The Caryll Papers in the possession of Sir Charles Dilke and those of d'Albeville are known in extracts only; some letters from the latter and Tyrconnel are among the manuscripts of Sir A. Malet described in Hist. MSS. Comm. 5th Rep. pt. i. (1876). Of contemporary memoirs, diaries, and correspondence, since Anne Hyde's Life of her husband shown by her to Burnet has perished, Burnet's History of his own Time (here cited in the Clarendon Press edition, 6 vols. 1833) is the most important, but one of the least safe, of text-books. The same reservation applies, for the period to 1667, to Clarendon's Life and passages in his Rebellion (here cited in the editions of 1826 and 1827), and, though in a less degree, to the Diary and Correspondence of his sons Clarendon and Rochester (ed. S. W. Singer, 2 vols. 1828). In the Appendix to the last-named are printed several of Archbishop Sancroft's MSS. in the Bodleian concerning the crisis of 1688. The Diary and Correspondence of Pepys (ed. M. Bright, 6 vols. 1875–9) is the chief source for our knowledge of the Duke of York's naval administration up to 1669; his official papers, published under the absurd title of Memoirs of the English Affairs, chiefly Naval, from 1660 to 1673 (London, 1729), were doubtless also edited by Pepys. H. B. Wheatley's chapter on the navy in Pepys and the World he lived in (1880) usefully supplements his author. Other serviceable memoirs and correspondences are Sir John Reresby's Memoirs (1634–89), ed. J. J. Cartwright, 1875; Evelyn's Diary and Correspondence, ed. W. Bray and H. B. Wheatley, 4 vols. 1879; the Ellis Correspondence (1686–8), ed. G. A. Ellis, 2 vols. 1829; and, to a less extent, the Memoirs of the Count de Grammont; H. Sidney's Diary of the Times of Charles II, ed. R. W. Blencowe, 2 vols. 1843; Memoirs of the Life of Sir Stephen Fox, 1717; and—out of the court sphere—the Life of Lord Guilford, in Roger North's Lives of the Norths, 3 vols. 1826; the Autobio-