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obeyed. He never before affected the least power’ (Travels through Germany, &c., English transl. ii. 284). On 8 Nov. 1760 Horace Mann writes: ‘He seems of late totally indifferent to all affairs, both of a public and of a domestic nature’ (Last Stuarts, Roxburghe Club, p. 18). He died about nine o'clock at night, on 1 Jan. 1766 (ib. p. 23). He was buried in the church of St. Peter's, where, in 1819, a monument by Canova was erected, at the expense of George III, over his tomb and that of his two sons, Charles Edward [q. v.] and Henry, cardinal York [q. v.]

The descriptions of the chevalier's character and person by a considerable number of observers are tolerably consistent. Notwithstanding the numerous letters written by him which are still extant, and the variety of particulars recorded of him, he remains obscure because he had really no distinctive character. Physically, he was sufficiently presentable: he was of good height, straight and well-made, and but for a certain vacuity of expression might have been esteemed handsome. In 1714 he is described as ‘always cheerful, but seldom merry, thoughtful but not dejected’ (Letter of Mr. Lesley to a Member of Parliament). ‘An English Traveller at Rome,’ in a ‘Letter to his Father, 6 May 1721,’ mentions the chevalier's ‘air of greatness, which discovered a majesty superior to the rest,’ and says ‘he returned my salute with a smile which changed the sedateness of his first aspect into a very graceful countenance.’ Gray, writing in 1740, is less flattering: ‘He is a thin, ill-made man, extremely tall and awkward, of a most unpromising countenance, a good deal resembling King James the Second, and has extremely the air and look of an idiot, particularly when he laughs or prays. The first he does not often, the latter continually’ (Works, ed. Gosse, ii. 85). Horace Walpole, in 1752, gives a similar account.

Keysler mentions the chevalier's special fondness ‘of seeing his image struck on medals.’ Among numerous portraits, mention may be made of those by A. S. Belle and A. R. Mengs in the National Portrait Gallery; that by Wizeman at Hampton Court; those by Gennari at Stonyhurst, one as an infant; that, as an infant, by Kneller, in the possession of Miss Rosalind B. C. C. de M. Howell; that by T. Blanchet, in the possession of W. J. Hay of Duns; and that, as a boy, by P. de Mignard, in the possession of the Duke of Fife. There are many anonymous portraits. A portrait of him and his sister, Princess Louise, when young, by Largillière, is in the possession of the Earl of Orford; and a picture of his marriage to the Princess Maria Clementina, by Carlo Maratti, is in the possession of the Earl of Northesk. There are a large number of his letters printed in Lockhart's ‘Papers,’ Macpherson's ‘Original Papers,’ the ‘Stuart Papers,’ and Thornton's ‘Stuart Dynasty’ (1890; 2nd edit. 1891). Some of his correspondence with Cardinal Gualterio and others is preserved at the British Museum among the Additional and Egerton MSS. (cf. Index to Additions to Manuscripts in the British Museum, 1854–1875; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. vi. 405 et seq.)

[Various particulars about the chevalier, more or less trustworthy, are to be found in such contemporary publications as Memoirs of John, Duke of Melfort, being an Account of the Secret Intrigues of the Chevalier de St. George, particularly relating to the Present Times, 1714; Secret Memoirs of Bar-le-Duc, 1716; Secret History of the Chevalier de St. George, being an Impartial Account of his Birth and Pretensions to the Throne of England, 1714; the Duke of Lorraine's Letter to Her Majesty, containing a Description and Character of the Pretender, 1714; Révolution d'Écosse et d'Irlande en 1707, 1708, et 1709, partie i. 1728; Memorial of the Chevalier de St. George on occasion of the Princess Sobieski retiring to a Nunnery, 1726; History of the Jacobite Club, 1712. See also Nathaniel Hooke's Correspondence (Abbotsford Club); Clarke's Life of James II; Dalrymple's Memoirs of Great Britain; Decline of the Last Stuarts (Roxburghe Club); Klopp's Fall des Hauses Stuart (up to 1713); La Marquise Campana de Cavelli's Les derniers Stuarts; Memoirs of Marshal Keith (Bannatyne Club); and various Lives of Bolingbroke. Among modern books are Jesse's Memoirs of the Pretenders; Chambers's History of the Rebellion; Charles de Brosses' L'Italie il y a cent Ans, 1836; Lacroix de Marlès's Histoire du Chevalier de Saint-Georges et du Prince Charles Edouard, 1860; Doran's Mann and Manners at the Court of Florence, 1875; and Doran's London in Jacobite Times, 1877.]

T. F. H.

JAMES, Duke of Berwick (1670–1734). [See Fitzjames, James.]

JAMES, BARTHOLOMEW (1752–1827), rear-admiral, was born at Falmouth on 28 Dec. 1752. In 1765 he was entered on board the Folkestone cutter, stationed at Bideford; in her, and afterwards in the West Indian and Lisbon packets, he remained till December 1770, when he was appointed to the Torbay at Plymouth, and in the following May to the Falcon sloop, going out to the West Indies. After an active commission he came home in the Falcon as acting lieutenant in August 1774; but his promotion not being confirmed he again entered on board the Folkestone, and in the following January on