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Observations thereon,’ London, 1792, 8vo.
  1. ‘A complete and uniform Explanation of the Prophecy of the Seven Vials of Wrath, or the Seven last Plagues, contained in the Revelations of St. John, chapters xv. xvi. To which is added a short Explanation of chapter xiv.; with other Revelation Prophecy interspersed and illustrated,’ 1804.

[Gent. Mag. lv. 732, lxii. 548, lxxiv. 343, 882; Chalmers's Biog. Dict.; Cantabrigienses Graduati, 1787, p. 217; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; Reuss's Reg. of Authors, p. 215; Bodleian Cat.; Masters's Corpus Christi Coll. List of Members, p. 28.]

T. C.

INGRAM, ROBERT ACKLOM (1763–1809), political economist, eldest son of Robert Ingram [q. v.], was born in 1763, and educated first in Dr. Grimwood's school at Dedham, and afterwards at Queens' College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. as senior wrangler in 1784. He became fellow and tutor of his college, commenced M.A. in 1787, was moderator in 1790, and proceeded B.D. in 1796. On taking orders he was appointed curate of Boxted, Essex, and in 1802 he was presented by the master and fellows of Queens' College to the rectory of Seagrave, Leicestershire, where he died on 5 Feb. 1809. His principal works are:

  1. ‘The Necessity of introducing Divinity into the regular Course of Academical Studies considered,’ Colchester, 1792, 8vo.
  2. ‘An Enquiry into the present Condition of the Lower Classes, and the means of improving it; including some Remarks on Mr. Pitt's Bill for the better Support and Maintenance of the Poor: in the course of which the policy of the Corn Laws is examined, and various other important branches of Political Economy are illustrated,’ London, 1797, 8vo.
  3. ‘A Syllabus or Abstract of a System of Political Philosophy; to which is prefixed a Dissertation recommending that the Study of Political Economy be encouraged in our Universities, and that a Course of Lectures be delivered on that subject,’ London, 1800, 8vo.
  4. ‘An Essay on the importance of Schools of Industry and Religious Instruction; in which the necessity of Promoting the good Education of poor Girls is particularly considered,’ London, 1801, 8vo.
  5. ‘The Causes of the Increase of Methodism and Dissension, and of the Popularity of what is called Evangelical Preaching, and the means of obviating them, considered in a Sermon [on Rom. xiv. 17, 19]. To which is added a Postscript … on Mr. Whitbread's Bill … for encouraging of Industry among the Labouring Classes,’ London, 1807, 8vo.
  6. ‘Disquisitions on Population, in which the Principles of the Essay on Population, by T. R. Malthus, are examined and refuted,’ London, 1808, 8vo.

[Lit. Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, i. 318; Reuss's Reg. of Authors, Suppl. i. 546; Gent. Mag. lxxix. 189, 275; Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge, i. 315; Graduati Cantabr.; Watt's Bibl. Brit.]

T. C.

INGULF (d. 1109), abbot of Crowland or Croyland in Lincolnshire, an Englishman, was secretary of William the Conqueror, and after having made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem entered the monastery of St. Wandrille in Normandy, where Gerbert, a man of much learning, was then abbot. He became prior, and when Ulfcytel, abbot of Crowland, was deposed, was in 1086 appointed by the Conqueror to his office. He interceded successfully for his predecessor, who was released from confinement at Glastonbury, and allowed to return to his old home, the monastery of Peterborough. Though much afflicted with gout, Ingulf was full of energy, and rebuilt part of his abbey church and other buildings which had been destroyed by fire. In 1092 he translated the body of Earl Waltheof [q. v.], beheaded in 1076, from the chapter-house to a place near the high altar of the church. He died on 16 Nov. 1109. He was one of the few Englishmen appointed to high office in the Conqueror's reign (Freeman, Norman Conquest, iv. 600).

Some fabulous notices of Ingulf's life are given in the forged ‘History’ which bears his name; his known relations with Gerbert, however, probably justify partial acceptance of the account of his learning contained in the forgery. The assertion that he wrote a life of St. Guthlac is founded only on a passage in the ‘History,’ and is not worthy of belief. The ‘History’ has been printed by Savile in his ‘Scriptores post Bedam,’ pp. 850–914, London, 1596, fol.; reprinted, Frankfort, 1601; by Fulman, with a continuation falsely attributed to Peter of Blois and other continuations, in his ‘Quinque Scriptores,’ pp. 1 sqq., Oxford, 1684, fol., a volume usually reckoned as the first of Gale's ‘Scriptores;’ separately by Mr. Birch in the ‘Chronicle of Croyland Abbey by Ingulph’ (Lat.), 1883; and in part in the ‘Recueil des Historiens,’ xi. 153–7; it has been translated by Riley in Bohn's ‘Historical Library,’ 1854. Five manuscripts of it are known to have existed, of which only one is supposed to be extant (Brit. Mus. Arundel MS. No. 178, 54 pages fol., written in a hand of the sixteenth century; printed by Mr. Birch). Selden, in his edition of ‘Eadmer’ (1623), speaks of a manuscript then kept at Crowland, and held to be Ingulf's autograph. He could not see it;