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Text of Genesis;’ in 1848, a ‘Hebrew-English and English-Hebrew Lexicon;’ in 1857, ‘The Gospels and Acts so printed as to Show the Sound of each Word without Change of Spelling,’ a work which was intended to illustrate his ‘New Way of Marking Sounds of English words without Change of Spelling,’ published in 1858; in 1866, an edition of Virgil with all the quantities marked; in 1875, ‘Nalopākhyānam,’ or the Sanskrit text of the Story of Nala transliterated into Roman characters; and in 1882, the ‘Hebrew Text of the Old Covenant printed in a modified Roman Alphabet.’ He had besides prepared transliterated editions, which were never published, of the Rāmāyana, the Shāhnāmah, and the Korān.

[Brit. Mus. Cat.; information from Professor Cowell.]

E. J. R.

JARROLD, THOMAS (1770–1853), physician, born at Manningtree, Essex, on 1 Dec. 1770, was educated at Edinburgh, where he is said to have taken his degree of M.D., though his name does not appear in the published list of graduates. He was in practice at Stockport, Cheshire, in 1806, and soon afterwards removed to Manchester, where he died on 24 June 1853. He was buried at the Congregational Chapel, Grosvenor Street. He was twice married, his first wife Susanna dying on 12 March 1817, aged 51, and the second at Norwich in 1886, aged 91. His son, Edgar T. Jarrold, died at New York on 25 Feb. 1890.

Jarrold published: 1. ‘Dissertations on Man … in answer to Mr. Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population,’ Stockport, 1806, 8vo, pp. 367. 2. ‘A Letter to Samuel Whitbread, M.P. … on the Poor's Laws,’ 1807, 8vo, pp. 32. 3. ‘Anthropologia, or Dissertations on the Form and Colour of Man,’ Stockport, 1808, 4to, pp. 261. 4. ‘An Inquiry into the Causes of the Curvature of the Spine,’ 1823, 8vo. 5. ‘Instinct and Reason philosophically investigated, with a view to ascertain the Principles of the Science of Education,’ Manchester, 1836, 8vo, pp. 348. 6. ‘Education of the People,’ pt. i., Manchester, 1847, 8vo. He was a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and in 1811 contributed to its ‘Memoirs’ a paper on ‘National Character’ (2nd series, ii. 328).

[Earwaker's Local Gleanings, i. 137, 143; Cheshire Notes and Queries, new ser. iii. 154; Allibone's Dict. of Authors, i. 955; communications from his daughter, Mrs. T. Jarrold of Norwich, and Mr. W. I. Wild.]

C. W. S.

JARRY, FRANCIS (1733–1807), first commandant of the British Royal Military College, born in France in 1733, is stated by the French war office to have entered the Prussian army, and to have become a captain and engineer therein at dates unknown, major 28 Oct. 1763, colonel 30 March 1790. The German war office, however, can find no trace of any officer of the name in the records of the Prussian army (foreign office letter, 14 Oct. 1890). According to Sir Howard Douglas [q. v.], and other officers associated with him at a later date in England, Jarry was one of the twelve military officers whom Frederick the Great of Prussia claimed to have personally instructed in quartermaster-general's duties. After the seven years' war, in which he is said to have received several severe wounds, Jarry (it is stated) was placed at the head of the military school at Berlin, and retained the post till Frederick's death in 1786. Once he resigned after a quarrel with the court; but the king could not spare him, and recalled him.

Jarry is said to have entered the service of France at the invitation of General Dumouriez, who described him as ‘one of the cleverest officers in any service’ (Le Marchant, p. 118; Evidence of Sir H. Douglas before Select Committee on Military Education, 1855). He was created a chevalier of the order of St. Louis 19 June 1791; was admitted colonel and adjutant-general in the French army 6 July 1791, and became maréchal de camp 27 May 1792 (verified extract from the Archives Administratives, Ministère de la Guerre, dated Paris, 17 Feb. 1891). He was employed in the French army, serving under Marshal Luckner against the Austrians in 1792, and he incurred the displeasure of the national government by burning part of the suburbs of Courtrai, on the ground that they furnished shelter to the Tyrolese riflemen, on 29 June 1792 (cf. Ann. Register, 1792, pt. i. pp. 410 et seq.) He left the French service 16 Aug. 1792.

Jarry arrived in London with other French emigrants after the return of the Duke of York's army in 1795. He became acquainted with the third Duke of Portland, and was a sort of military mentor to one of the duke's sons, Lord William Henry Cavendish Bentinck [q. v.] He was soon recognised as a man of eminent talent in his profession and full of interesting anecdote. A year or two later, at the suggestion of General John Gaspard Le Marchant [q. v.], then junior lieutenant-colonel 7th light dragoons, he was engaged to deliver tactical lectures to voluntary classes of young officers at a house in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, which was hired for the purpose (Evidence of Sir H. Douglas before Select Committee). George Murray of the