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John
John
427

Scotland, 11 March, and as constable of the principality of Wales, 8 Aug. 1398. He died 3 Feb. 1399 at Ely House m Holborn, and was buried in St. Paul's beside his first wife, 'where they bad a noble monument, which was utterly destroyed in the time of the late usurpation' (Dugdale, Baronage). The tomb was placed in the choir between two columns on the north side of the high altar (Dugdale, History of St. Paul's, p. 90), the recumbent effigies of the duke and his wife being executed in alabaster. Richard had granted special leave to the Duke of Hereford to appoint a proxy to receive his inheritance. This leave he withdrew, 18 March, and took possession of the Lancaster estates.

By his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster (d. 1369), Gaunt was father of Henry IV, of Philippa, wife of John of Portugal, and of Elizabeth, wife of John Holland, earl of Huntingdon and duke of Exeter (1352?-1400) [q. v.]; Catharine, wife of Henry, prince of the Asturias, afterwards king of Castile, was Gaunt's daughter by his second wife, Constance of Castile (d. 1394). By Catharine Swynford, his third wife, he had, before marriage, John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, Henry Beaufort, bishop of Lincoln and of Winchester, and cardinal [q. v.], Thomas Beaufort, earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter [q. v.], and Joan Beaufort, wife of Sir Robert Ferrers and subsequently of Ralph Nevill, earl of Westmoreland. Catharine Swynford died 10 May 1403, and was buried at Lincoln.

[Collins's Hist. of John of Gaunt, 1740; Chronicles of Walsinpham; Chronicon Anglise, 1328-88; Eulogium Historiarum and Fasciculi Zizaniorum (all in Rolls Series); Knighton in Twysden's Decem. Script.; Adam Murimuth (English Hist. Soc.), Robert of Avesbury and Historic Ricardi II a mon. Evesham (both edited by Hearne); Adam of Usk, 1377-1404, ed. E. Maunde Thompson for Royal Soc. of Lit. 1876; Froissart's Chroniqucs, edd. Lettenhove and i Luce; Stow's Annals; Barnes's Hist. Edward III; Lowth's Life of William of Wykeham; Stubbs's Const. Hist.; Green's Hist. English People; Longman's Life and Times of Edward III; Wallon's Richard II; Dugdale's Baronage; Rymer's Fœdera.]

E. M. T.

JOHN of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford (1389–1435), third son of Henry IV [q. v.], by his queen Mary, daughter of Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, was born on 20 June 1389, and was knighted on 11 Oct. 1399, the eve of his father's coronation, being one of the original knights-companions of the Bath; the following year he received the order of the Garter. On 10 Sept. 1403 he was made constable of England, and about the same time governor of Berwick and warden of the east marches (Rotuli Scotiœ, i. 164). By the middle of 1404 his pay was 4,000l. in arrear, his troops were mutinous, he was in a disaffected country, and was engaged in constant hostilities. Some instalments of pay were sent to him, but they were insufficient, and his troops were only pacified by some money which he borrowed from Lord Furnival (Ordinances of the Privy Council, i. 269; Rolls of Parliament, iii. 552). Although he received a grant of castles belonging to Henry Percy, he was forced to spend his revenues in maintaining his forces. In 1405 he wrote to inform the council of the revolt of Lord Bardolf, joined the Earl of Westmoreland, warden of the west marches, and met the Archbishop of York [see Scrope, Richard Le] and the other rebels on Shipton Moor. He received grants of the castles of the Earl of Northumberland. In April 1408, and again in April 1411, he was appointed to treat with the Scots. During the rest of his father's reign, which ended in March 1413, he continued to hold his command in the north, fortifying Berwick and keeping peace as far as he was able in the east marches. Like his eldest brother, he seems to have been under the influence of the Beauforts, and acted cordially with the Earl of Westmoreland.

In the parliament held at Leicester in May 1414 he was created Duke of Bedford and Earl of Kendal, and in November following received the reversion of the earldom of Richmond, with its castles and honour, then held by the Earl of Westmoreland, whom he succeeded as regards this grant in 1425. In May he made a representation concerning his wardenship to the king in council, setting forth that, though he had made many complaints to the late king, he had been kept without the means of defending the marches, and had spent all his own money in the king's service, that his soldiers were mutinous and that he was ruined (Ordinances, ii. 136-9). He resigned the wardership on 28 Sept. On the restoration of the young Earl of Northumberland he surrendered the castles of the earldom, and received in exchange a pension of three thousand marks.

Bedford was handsome and well-made; he was reckoned learned, and took a foremost place in his brother's council, where he upheld the alliance with the Duke of Burgundy, while the Dukes of Gloucester, Clarence, and York favoured the party of Orleans (Juvenal Des Ursins, p. 497). In May 1415 he was present at the conference between Henry and the French ambassadors at Winchester, and was appointed lieutenant of the kingdom during the king's expedition to