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John
John
438

that office. John obtained numerous donations for his see from the king (Reg. Episc. Glasg. i. 1-11); he formed the two archdeaconries of Glasgow and Teviotdale, and founded the various offices of dean, chancellor, &c. He rebuilt the cathedral, which was consecrated 7 July 1136; his structure, which was burnt about forty years later, was mostly of wood, but some of his work may survive in the present transepts. John died 28 May 1147, and was buried in the abbey of Jedburgh, which David had founded by his advice and counsel. Eadmer [q. v.] sought John's advice as to remaining at St. Andrews in 1120, and was recommended to leave Scotland (Hist. Nov. p. 285, Rolls Ser.) John is sometimes given the surname Achaius; Thomas Stubbs in one place calls him Michael (Script. Decem. 1713). Dempster ascribes to him treatises 'de solitudinis encomio' and 'de amicitia spirituali,' which are no doubt fictitious (Hist. Eccl. ix. 733).

[Chron. Melrose, Bannatyne Club; Chronicles of Richard and John of Hexham, Surtees Soc., with Raine's notes; Dixon and Raine's Fasti Eboracenses, i. 197-8; Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Eccles. Docs. ii. 192-217, for the dispute with Thurstan; Gordon's Scotichronieon, ii. 469-70; Grub's Eccl. Hist. Scotl. i. 220-3, 261-5.]

C. L. K.

JOHN (fl. 1170), called of Cornwall, and also Johannes de Sancto Germano, theologian, was no doubt a native of St. German's, Cornwall, although it has been contended by some writers that he was a Bas-Breton (e.g. Levot, Biog. Bretonne, i. 933). Giraldus Cambrensis twice refers to him, and on one occasion quotes a story in which he is described as a proper person to be made a Welsh bishop on account of his knowledge of the language (De Invectionibus, v. c. 8, Op. i. 133, in Rolls Ser.) The notes on Merlin's prophecies which are ascribed to John contain some references to Cornwall, and manuscripts of his works are not uncommon in English libraries. If we could feel certain that he was, as has been suggested, the Cornish friend on whose behalf John of Salisbury wrote his eightieth epistle, the question of his nationality would be definitely set at rest. All that we know positively is that John, as he himself tells us, studied at Paris under Peter Lombard and Robert of Melun, and that he in turn became a lecturer (Giraldus Cambrensis, Gemma Ecclesiastica, ii. 35, Op. ii. 343, Rolls Ser.) Later writers say that he studied at Rome and elsewhere in Italy; he was apparently present at the Council of Tours in 1163, and was perhaps personally acquainted with Pope Alexander III. He was living after 1176, but there is nothing to show that he is the John of Cornwall who was archdeacon of Worcester in 1197 (Le Neve, Fasti, iii. 73).

John of Cornwall's only undoubted work is the 'Eulogium ad Alexandrum Papam III.' which bears the sub-title 'Quod Christus sit aliquis homo.' This is written in opposition to the doctrine held by Abelard, Gilbert de la Porrée, and for a time by Peter Lombard,, that the humanity of Christ was only a garment with which the Word clothed itself. The doctrine was condemned by Alexander III at Tours in 1163, and John, who had formerly supported it, is said to have appeared there on behalf of the orthodox opinion. The Eulogium itself was not, however, written till after 1176, for the preface alludes to William as being in 1163 archbishop of Sens, and now of Rheims, and Williams translation took place in 1176. One manuscript mentions a previous treatise on the same subject, which had been written for a 'concilium Romanum;' the statement is of somewhat dubious authority, but if accepted the council must either be that of Tours or the Lateran of 1179. In any case the 'Eulogium' must have been composed before 1181, the year of Alexander III's death. 'Eulogium' is used in the sense of a good or orthodox discourse; summaries of the work will be found in the 'Histoire Littéraire de la France,' xiv. 198-9, and Ceillier's 'Histoire des Auteurs Ecclesiastiques,' xiv. 358. It was first printed in Martène's 'Thesaurus Novus Anecdotum,' v. 1655-1702, Paris, 1717, and is reprinted in Migne's 'Patrologia,' cxcix. 1041-86.

Other works ascribed to John of Cornwall are:

  1. 'Summa qualiter fiat Sacramentum Altaris per virtutem Sanctæ Crucis et de septem Canonibus vel Ordinibus Missæ.' This is the same work as the 'Libellus de Canone Mystici Libaminis et ejus Ordinibus.' It has been also ascribed to William of St. Thierry, Hugh of St. Victor, and Richard of St. Victor; there is no particular reason for assigning it to John of Cornwall. Pits makes two works of it, 'De Sacramento Altaris' and 'De Virtute Crucis.' It was printed at Rome in 1591 in a 'Collection of Liturgical Writers,' and is reprinted in Migne's 'Patrologia,' clxxvii. 455.
  2. 'Apologia de Christi Incarnatione,' also called 'De Verbo Incarnato,' or 'De Homine Assumpto.' The authorship of this treatise, which treats of the same subject as the 'Eulogium,' was transferred to John from Hugh of St. Victor by Oudin, who argued that it was the treatise composed by the former for the council of Tours; but the reasons which he alleges against its ascription to Hugh apply equally to the ascription to John. It