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von Salisbury, Berlin, 1842) and C. Schaarschmidt (Johannes Saresberiensis nach Leben und Studien, Schriften und Philosophie,Leipzig, 1862). The latter is of special value for its treatment of John as a scholar, his training and learned friends, his philosophical views, and, above all, the extent of his classical learning. This last subject is examined with remarkable industry and penetration. In chronological points this life often needs correcting, particularly in consequence of the discovery of the Historia Pontificalis, the biographical importance of which has been well drawn out by R. Pauli in the article cited in the text (Zeitschrift fur Kirchenrecht, xvi. 265-87, 1881). A bibliography of John's works and notices of writings falsely attributed to him, as well as of supposed works by him which are no longer known to exist, will be found in Schaarschmidt, pp. 281-90. A more recent biography (Jean de Salisbury) by the Abbé M. Bemimuid (Paris, 1873) is deficient in the peculiar merits of Professor Schaarschmidt's book, of which the author appears to be ignorant; it is characterised by considerable painstaking (particularly in regard to John's correspondence), but betrays an insufficient knowledge of the time and an uncritical use of authorities. Reference may also be mado to C. von Prantl, Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande, ii. 232-58 (1861); B. Hauréau, Histoire de la Philosophic Scolastique, 1872; J. Wagenmann, in Herzogand Plitts Real Encyklopädie der protestantischen Theologie, vii. 51-63, 1880; R. L. Poole's Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought, 1884, ch. iv-vii. (where a biography is given); Bishop Stubbs's Seventeen Lectures on the Study of Medieval and Modern History, 1886, lect. vi. vii.; Miss Kate Norgate's England under the Angevin Kings, 1887.]

R. L. P.

JOHN (fl. 1180), called of Hexham, historian, was a canon of Hexham, and became prior of his house, probably in succession to Richard of Hexham [q. v.] Prior Richard seems to have died about 1160, and certainly before 1167. The prior of Hexham in 1209 was called William. John's rule must have fallen between these dates. There are two charters which show that John was prior before 1178 (Priory of Hexham, ii. 86-7), and his name appears in another, the date of which can be fixed between 1189 and 1194. Probably, therefore, John was prior for about thirty years, but he is not mentioned in any chronicle of the time.

John is the author of a continuation of the 'Chronicle' of Symeon of Durham. His work extends over a period of twenty-five years from 1130 to 1154. From 1135 to 1139 he was able to make use of Prior Richard's history; but John's narrative of these years is much the shorter. He, however, makes some additions, which point to the possession of independent information.

John was also acquainted with the works of William of Malmesbury and Florence of Worcester, as well as with the 'Gesta Stephani,' and with the lives of Archbishop Thurstan by Hugh the Chanter and Geoffrey Turcople. His narrative deals mainly with the ecclesiastical history of northern England, and it is in this relation that it is most valuable. He appears to have had a personal knowledge of some of the later events which he describes. The only manuscript of his work is one marked F. v. 139 at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. It is, unfortunately, a somewhat careless transcript of the original, dating from the early part of the thirteenth century. The 'Chronicle' is printed in Twysden's 'Scriptores Decem,' pp. 258-82, in Raine's 'Priory of Hexham,' i. 107-72 (Surtees Soc. xliv. 1864), and in the Rolls Series edition of Symeon of Durham, ii. 284-332. There is a translation in Stevenson's 'Collection of Church Historians of England,' vol. iv. Bale also ascribes to John: 1. 'De Signis et Cometis.' This is merely the passage in the 'Chronicle' about the comet of 1133, which Mr. Raine considers to be an interpolation by another hand (Priory of Hexham, i. 110–12). 2. 'Descriptio Scotici Belli, 'beginning' Eodem anno quo mortuus est.' 3. 'Conciones.' Of the two latter nothing seems known.

[Bale, iii. 230-1; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 400, s.v. 'Hexham;' Hardy's Cat. Brit. Hist, ii. 258; Raine's Preface to Priory of Hexham, i. clii-clviii.]

C. L. K.

JOHN (fl. 1230), called of St. Giles, Dominican and physician, was born near St. Albans, probably not later than 1180. He is said to have studied at Oxford, and afterwards, with more certainty, at Paris and Montpellier. For a short time he lectured at Montpellier on medicine. Eventually he became first physician to Philip Augustus, king of France. This appointment was no doubt made on the death of Rigord in 1209, and was probably subsequent to his residence at Montpellier. In the university of Paris John lectured on medicine and philosophy, and, after becoming a doctor of divinity, on theology also. He apparently acquired great wealth as a physician, and purchased the Hopital de St. Jacques at Paris, which building he presented in 1218 to the Dominicans, who from its possession were frequently known as Jacobins in France. John s sympathy with the Dominicans led him to join their order. According to the story preserved by Trivet, he was once preaching on voluntary poverty, and in order that he might enforce his words by a practical example, he descended from the pulpit, took the habit from