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1651-2 pp.95, 253, 547-8, 568, 1655 pp. 324-5, 1655-6 p. 31, 1663-4 p. 517, 1664-5 p. 77; Groen van Prinsterer's Archives de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau, 2ième série, tom. iv. and v.; Thurloe State Papers, i. 683, 700, 742, ii. 284, 513, 694, 701-2, vii. 131, 168, 228, 315, 334; Abelin's Theatr. Europ. ix. 222; Merc. Polit. 25 Oct. 1655, Parl. Intelligencer, 1-8 June 1663; Lower's Relation, pp. 66, 71; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th Rep. App. 129a; Pepys's Diary, 17 Aug. 1668; Evelyn's Diary, 2 June 1676; O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees, p. 385, Montgomery MSS. Belfast, 1830, p. 65; Van Goor's Beschryving der Stadt en Lande van Breda, 1774, p. 213; Granger's Biog. Hist. ed. 1779, iv. 169; Mrs. Everett Green's Lives of the Princesses of England.]

J. M. R.

KIRKLAND, THOMAS, M.D. (1721–1798), medical writer, a native of Scotland, was born in 1721. He practiced at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire. In January 1760 he was called in to attend the steward of Lord Ferrers after he had been shot by his master. Despite Ferrers's threats of violence, Kirkland contrived the arrest of the murderer (Gent. Mag. xxx. 44, 230). By 1774 Kirkland had graduated M.D. at Edinburgh, and subsequently became a member of the Royal Medical Societies of Edinburgh and London. He died at Ashby-de-la-Zouch on 17 Jan. 1798.

Kirkland's writings are: 1. 'A Treatise on Gangrenes,' 8vo, Nottingham, 1754. 2. 'An Essay on the Methods of Suppressing Hæmorrhages from Divided Arteries,' 8vo, London, 1763. 3. 'An Essay towards an Improvement in the Cure of those Diseases which are the cause of Fevers,' 8vo, London, 1767. 4. 'A Reply to Mr. Maxwell's Answer to his Essay on Fevers; wherein the Utility of the Practice of Suppressing them is further exemplified,' 8vo, London, 1769. 5. 'Observations on Mr. Pott's General Remarks on Fractures, etc.; with a Postscript concerning the Cure of Compound Dislocations,' 8vo, London, 1770 (Appendix, 1771). 6. 'A Treatise on Childbed Fevers... with two Dissertations, the one on the Brain and Nerves, the other on the Sympathy of the Nerves, etc.' (included in 'Essays on the Puerperal Fever,' published by the Sydenham Society in 1849), 8vo, London, 1774. 7. 'Animadversions on a late Treatise on the Kink-Cough [by Dr. William Butler]. To which is annexed an Essay on that Disorder,' 8vo, London, 1774, published anonymously. 8. 'Thoughts on Amputation; being a Supplement to the Letters on Compound Fractures, and a Comment on Dr. Bilguer's book on this operation; also, an Essay on the use of Opium in Mortifications,' 8vo, London, 1780. 9. 'An Essay on the Inseparability of the different Branches of Medicine,' 8vo (London, 1783). 10. 'An Inquiry into the Present State of Medical Surgery,' 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1783-6. (Appendix, edited by his son, James Kirkland, surgeon to the Tower, 1813). 11. 'A Commentary on Apoplectic and Paralytic Affections, and the Diseases connected with the Subject,' 8vo, London, 1792.

[Gent. Mag. 1798. pt. i. pp. 88-9, 254; Watt's Bibl. Brit.]

G. G.

KIRKMAN, FRANCIS (fl. 1674), bookseller and author, born in 1632, was apparently eldest son of Francis Kirkman (d. 1662), citizen and blacksmith, of London, by his wife Ellen (will of F. Kirkman registered in P.C.C. 67, Laud). By dint of private study he acquired some knowledge of French and Spanish, which he was afterwards able to turn to good account. From boyhood he was a collector of plays and romances. His father left him considerable property, which he appears to have squandered. In 1661 he established himself as a bookseller at the sign of 'John Fletcher's Head,' near St. Clement Danes Church, Strand, but removed before 1671 to Thames Street, in 1672 to St. Paul's Churchyard, and in 1673 to Fenchurch Street. With the bookselling business he combined that of a circulating library, his speciality being plays, poetry, and romances.

As early as 1657, Kirkman issued and edition of 'Marlowe's tragedy of 'Lusts Dominion' (12mo). In 1661 he printed a useful 'Catalogue of all the English Stage-Playes' then printed—690 in all. Ten years later he appended to John Dancer's translation of Corneille's 'Nicomède' (4to, 1671) a revised edition of this 'Catalogue,' brought down to date, and consisting of 806 plays. In an interesting 'Advertisement' he informs his readers that he had not only seen but had read all these plays, and possessed most of them, which he was ready either to sell or lend 'upon reasonable considerations.' He also states that he knew many curious particulars of the lives of the old dramatists from his having 'taken pleasure to converse with those who were acquainted with them.'

He also proposed to publish from time to time plays hitherto unprinted, the manuscripts of which he possessed; but he only issued Webster and Rowley's comedies of 'A Cure for a Cuckold' (1661) and 'The Thracian Wonder' (1661). During the same year he published in black letter Bishop Still's comedy of 'Gammer Gurton's Needle.' Under the title of 'The Wits, or Sport upon Sport,' he issued a collection of drolls and farces (2 pts. 12 mo, London, 1673, pp.