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with the cardinal of Beauvais, to mediate between France and England, and with this purpose visited both courts. The mission did not achieve its immediate object, but Langham arranged a peace between the English king and the Count of Flanders (Fœdera, iii. 953). In July 1373 he was made cardinal-bishop of Praeneste. Next year, on the death of Whittlesey, the chapter of Canterbury chose Langham for archbishop, but the court desired the post for Simon Sudbury, and the pope refused to confirm the election by the chapter on the ground that Langham could not be spared from Avignon; Langham thereon agreed to waive his rights (Eulog. Hist. iii. 339). When in 1376 the return of the papal court to Rome was proposed, Langham obtained permission to go back to England, but died before effecting his purpose on 22 July. His body was at first interred in the church of the Carthusians at Avignon; three years later it was transferred to St. Benet's Chapel in Westminster Abbey. His tomb is the oldest and most remarkable ecclesiastical monument in the abbey. Widmore quotes a poetical epitaph from John Flete's manuscript history of the abbey.

Langham was plainly a man of remarkable ability, and a skilful administrator. But his rule was so stern, that he inspired little affection. An epigram on his translation to Canterbury runs:

Exultent cœli, quia Simon transit ab Ely,
Cujus in adventum flent in Kent millia centum.

Nevertheless, the Monk of Ely praises him with some warmth as a discreet and prudent pastor (Anglia Sacra, i. 663). To Westminster Abbey he was a most munificent benefactor, and has been called, not unjustly, its second founder. In addition to considerable presents in his lifetime, he bequeathed to the abbey his residuary estate; altogether, his benefactions amounted to 10,800l., or nearly 200,000l. in modern reckoning. Out of this money Littlington rebuilt the abbot's house (now the deanery), together with the southern and western cloisters and other parts of the conventual buildings which have now perished. His will, dated 28 June 1375, is printed by Widmore (Appendix, pp. 184–91). It contains a number of bequests to friends and servants, and to various churches with which he had been connected, including those of Langham and Ely.

[Walsingham's Hist. Angl. and Murimuth's Chron. in Rolls Ser.; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 46–8; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ed. Hardy; Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 274; Widmore's Hist. of the Church of St. Peter, pp. 91–101; Stanley's Memorials of Westminster, p. 354; Foss's Judges of England, iii. 453–6; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, iv. 163–220; authorities quoted.]

C. L. K.

LANGHORNE, DANIEL (d. 1681), antiquary, a native of London, was admitted of Trinity College, Cambridge, 23 Oct. 1649, became a scholar of that house, and graduated B.A. in 1653-4, and M.A. in 1657. He became curate of Holy Trinity, Ely, and on 17 March 1662 the bishop granted him a license to preach in that church and throughout the diocese (Kennett, Register and Chron. p. 884). He was elected a fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1663, and proceeded to the degree of B.D. in 1664, when he was appointed one of the university preachers. On 3 Sept. 1670 he was instituted to the vicarage of Layston, with the chapel of Alswyk, Hertfordshire, and consequently vacated his fellowship in the following year (Clutterbuck, Hertfordshire, iii. 484). He held his benefice till his death on 10 Aug. 1681 (Baker MSS. xxii, 318).

His works are:

  1. 'Elenchus Antiquitatum Albionensium, Britannorum, Scotorum, Danorum, Anglosaxonum, etc.; Origines et Gesta usque ad annum 449, quo Angli in Britanniam immigrarunt, explicans,' London, 1673, 8vo, dedicated to William Monlacute, attorney-general to Queen Catherine.
  2. 'Appendix ad Elenchus Antiquitatum Albionensium: Res Saxonum et Suevorum vetustissimas exhibens,' London, 1674, 8vo.
  3. 'An Introduction to the History of England, comprising the principal affairs of this land from its first planting to the coming of the English Saxons. Together with a Catalogue of British and Pictish Kings,' London, 1676, 8vo.
  4. 'Chronicon Regum Anglorium, insignia omnia eorum gesta … ab Hengisto Rego primo, usque ad Heptarchiæ finem, chronologicè exhibens,' London, 1679, 8vo, dedicated to Sir Joseph Williamson, secretary of state. A beautifully written manuscript by Langhorne, entitled 'Chronici Regum Anglorum Continuatio, a rege Egberto usque ad annum 1007 deducta,' belonged to Dawson Turner (Cat. of Dawson Turner's MSS. 1859, p. 107).

[Addit. MS. 5875, f. 42; Masters's Hist. of Corpus Christi College. Cambridge, p. 329; Nicolson's English Historical Library.]

T. C.

LANGHORNE, JOHN (1735–1779), poet, the younger son of the Rev. Joseph Langhorne of Winton in the parish of Kirkby Stephen, Westmoreland, and Isabel his wife, was born at Winton in March 1735. He was first educated at a school in his native