citizens, and was associated in the establishment of some of its prominent institutions. He took a leading part in the projection of the Manchester Athenæum in 1836. His services were publicly recognised in 1881 by the presentation to the Athenæum of his marble medallion bust, along with those of his co-founders, Richard Cobden and James Heywood, F.R.S. When the Chetham Society was founded in 1843 he became one of its earliest members, and was elected its treasurer, subsequently exchanging that office for the honorary secretaryship. He edited for the society three volumes of 'Chetham Miscellanies,' 1851, 1856, 1862; 'Lancashire Inquisitions Post Mortem,' 1875; and 'Benalt's Visitation of Lancashire of 1533,' 2 vols. 1876–82. About 1846 he acted as secretary to a committee that was formed to obtain a university for Manchester. Though unsuccessful, this scheme probably in part suggested to John Owens [q.v.] the foundation of the college which bears his name. He was also, in association with Dr. Kay (afterwards Sir J. P. Kay-Shuttleworth [q.v.]), a chief promoter of the Manchester Provident Society, 1833, and of the Manchester Statistical Society in the same year. To the latter society he contributed in 1857 a paper on the 'Balance of Account between the Mercantile Public and the Bank of England,' and in 1867 a presidential address.
Among other professional papers he wrote 'On Banks and Bank Shareholders,' 1879, and a letter on savings banks, 1880, addressed to the chancellor of the exchequer. He was an accurate genealogist, herald, and antiquary, a philologist, a skilful draughtsman, and a graceful writer of verse, both in his own language and in Italian. On his retirement into private life 5,000l. was raised in his honour, and a memorial Langton fellowship founded at Owens College. He spent his retirement at Ingatestone, Essex, where he died on 29 Sept. 1881. He was buried in Fryerning churchyard, Essex.
He married at Kirkham, Lancashire, on 15 Nov. 1831, Margaret, daughter of Joseph Hornby of Ribby, Lancashire, and had issue three sons and six daughters.
[Memoir in Chetham Society's Publications, vol. cx., which contains also a portrait of Langton from the Athenæum bust; Manchester Guardian, 30 Sept. 1881; Manchester City News, 1 Sept. 1877 and 1 Oct. 1881; Foster's Lancashire Pedigrees.]
LANGTON, ZACHARY (1698–1788), divine, third son of Cornelius Langton of Kirkham, Lancashire, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of the Rev. Zachary Taylor, headmaster of the grammar school there, was baptised at Kirkham on 24 Sept. 1698. He was educated at Kirkham grammar school, and, on being elected to a Barker exhibition, went to Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on 18 Dec. 1721, and M.A. on 10 June 1724. After his ordination he removed to Ireland, where his kinsman, Dr. Clayton, was bishop of Killala, and afterwards of Clogher. He held preferments in the diocese of Killala, and was chaplain between 1746 and 1761 to the Earl of Harrington, lord-lieutenant. He held the prebend of Killaraght from 5 July 1735 until 1782, and that of Errew from 6 Dec. 1735 until his death. In November 1761 he returned to England, and was present at Kirkham Church in 1769 at the recantation of William Gant, late a Roman catholic priest. He published anonymously a pedantic work entitled 'An Essay concerning the Human Rational Soul, in three parts,' 8vo, Dublin, 1753; Liverpool, 1755; Oxford, 1764. The Oxford edition has a dedication of 166 pages addressed to the Duke of Bedford, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He died at Oxford on 1 Feb. 1786. He married Bridget, daughter of Alexander Butler of Kirkland, Lancashire, but died without issue.
[Fishwick's Kirkham (Chetham Soc.), p. 152; Palatine Note-book, iv. 148, 179, 246; Earwaker's Local Gleanings, 4to, ii. 127, 8vo, 274, 314; Monthly Rev. December 1764, xxxi. 414; Gent. Mag. 1786, lvi. 266; Cotton's Fasti Hibern. iv. 89, 110; Foster's Lanc. Pedigrees.]
LANGWITH, BENJAMIN (1684?–1743), antiquary and natural philosopher, a Yorkshireman, was born about 1684. He was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge, and elected fellow and tutor (Cooper, Memorials of Cambridge, i. 314). He graduated B.A. in 1704, M.A. in 1708, B.D. in 1716, and D.D. in 1717 (Cantabr. Graduati, 1787, p. 233). Thoresby placed his son under his care, but was obliged to remove him, owing to Langwith's negligence (Letters addressed to R. Thoresby, ii. 322–3, 881–2). He was instituted to the rectory of Petworth, Sussex, in 1718 (Dallaway, Rape of Arundel, ed. Cartwright, p. 335), and was made prebendary of Chichester on 15 June 1725 (Le Neve, Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 273). He was buried at Petworth on 2 Oct. 1743, aged 59. His widow, Sarah, died on 8 Feb. 1784, aged 91, and was buried in Westminster Abbey (Registers, ed. Chester, p. 437).
Langwith gave Francis Drake some assistance in the preparation of his 'Eboracum.' His scientific attainments were considerable. Four of his dissertations were inserted in the 'Philosophical Transactions.' He wrote also 'Observations on Dr. Arbuthnot's Dissertations on Coins, Weights, and Measures,' 4to,