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Washington Irving, into Mexico. In 1837 he was commissioned by government to report on the working of the funds voted for the education of the West Indian negroes, and made a tour of the islands; and in 1839 he was appointed (30 Sept.) superintendent of the Port Phillip district of New South Wales, a post which was converted (27 Jan. 1851) into the lieutenant-governorship of Victoria, on the separation of that district from the parent colony. This was the time of the gold fever, when the population of Victoria rose in six months from fifteen thousand to eighty thousand, and the governor's position was no sinecure. Latrobe's upright and honest character, however, made him generally popular. He retired on 5 May 1854, was made C.B. 30 Nov. 1858, and died in London on 2 Dec. 1875. He was buried at the Sussex village of Littlington, near Eastbourne, where he spent the last years of his life. He was twice married, and left a son and four daughters.

Latrobe published many pleasantly written descriptions of his travels. His books are entitled: 1. 'The Alpenstock, or Sketches of Swiss Scenery and Manners,' 1825–6, London, 1829. 2. 'The Pedestrian: a Summer's Ramble in the Tyrol,' London, 1832. 3. 'The Rambler in North America,' 1832–3, 2 vols., London, 1835; reprinted at New York. 4. 'The Rambler in Mexico in 1834,' London, 1836. These last two are in the form of letters. 5. 'The Solace of Song,' poems suggested by travels in Italy, London, 1837. He also translated Hallbeck's 'Narrative of a Visit ... to the New Missionary Settlement of the United Brethren.'

[Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates; Athenæum, No. 2512, 18 Dec. 1875; Gent. Mag. 1859, i. 86; private information.]

S. L. P.

LATROBE, CHRISTIAN IGNATIUS (1758–1836), musical composer, eldest son of the Rev. Benjamin Latrobe, a prominent Moravian minister, was born at Fulneck, near Leeds, 12 Feb. 1758. The family is said to have been of Huguenot extraction, and to have originally settled in Ireland, coming over there with William of Orange. In 1771 Christian went to Niesky, Upper Lusatia, for study at the Moravian college there, and after completing his course was appointed teacher in the pedagogium or high school. He returned to England in 1784, was ordained, and in 1787 became secretary to the Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel. In 1795 he succeeded James Hutton [q. v.] as secretary of the Unity of the Brethren in England, and at the Herrnhut synod of 1801 was appointed a 'senior civilis,' an office of the ancient brethren's church which he was the last to hold. As an advocate of the missions of his church he laboured at home with great zeal, and in 1815–16 undertook a visitation in South Africa, an account of which he published under the title of 'Journal of a Voyage to South Africa' (London, 1818). Besides this work and a translation of Loskiel's 'History of the Missions among the Indians in North America,' Latrobe wrote an account of the voyage of the brethren Kohlmeister and Kmoch to Ungava Bay, and published 'Letters on the Nicobar Islands' (London, 1812). 'Letters to my Children,' a pleasant little volume, was issued in 1851 by his son, John Antes Latrobe.

Latrobe possessed some musical talent and composed a large number of anthems, chorales, &c., of no little excellence. His first works were chiefly instrumental; three sonatas for pianoforte which Haydn had commended were published and dedicated to him. His other printed compositions include a setting for four voices of Lord Roscommon's version of the 'Dies Iræ' (1799); 'Anthem for the Jubilee of George III' (1809); 'Original Anthems for 1, 2, or more voices' (1823); 'Te Deum performed in York Cathedral;' 'Miserere, Ps. 51;' and 'Six Airs on Serious Subjects, words by Cowper and Hannah More.' He was editor of the first English edition of the 'Moravian Hymn Tune Book.' The work for which he is chiefly remembered is a 'Selection of Sacred Music from the Works of the most eminent Composers of Germany and Italy' (6 vols. 1806–25). By means of this publication, the detailed contents of which are printed in Grove's 'Dictionary of Music,' Latrobe first introduced a large number of the best modern compositions to the notice of the British public. He died at Fairfield, near Liverpool, 6 May 1836. His sons, John Antes and Charles Joseph, are separately noticed.

[Brief Notices of the Latrobe Family, London, privately printed, 1864 (a translation of article, ‘revised by members of the family,’ in the Brueder-Bote, November 1864, a periodical published in the German province of the brethren's church); Grove's Dict. of Music, ii. 102; Musical Times, September 1851; private information; Holmes's Hist. of Protestant Church of United Brethren, 2 vols. London, 1825.]

J. C. H.

LATROBE, JOHN ANTES (1799–1878), writer on music, son of Christian Ignatius Latrobe [q. v.], was born in London in 1799. He received his education at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, graduated B.A. 1826, M.A. 1829, took orders in the church of England, served as curate at Melton Mowbray, Tintern (Monmouthshire), and other places, and finally became incumbent of St. Thomas's,