Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 32.djvu/258

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Lawrence
Lawrence
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was appointed lieutenant-governor in 1754, and governor in 1766. He commanded the reserve in Lord Loudon's operations in 1757, became a brigadier-general 3 Dec. 1757, and commanded a brigade at the siege of Louisburg, Cape Breton. Lawrence died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 17 Oct. 1760, from a chill taken when heated with dancing at a ball. There is a public monument to him in St. Paul's Church, Halifax.

[Home Office Military Entry Books in Public Becord Office, London; Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe, London, 1884, vols. i. ii. and references there given; B. Murdoch's Hist. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, 1857, ii. 148, 289, 485; Appleton's Encycl. Amer. Biog. vol. iii.; Lawrence's Papers, 1753-4, from Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 19072; and abstracts of his letters, 1755, Addit. MS. 33029, ff. 221, 232.]

H. M. C.


LAWRENCE, CHARLES (1794–1881), agriculturist, born on 21 March 1794, was the son of William Lawrence (1758–1837), an old-established surgeon of Cirencester, Gloucestershire. His mother was Judith, second daughter of William Wood of Tetbury, Gloucestershire. Sir William Lawrence [q. v.] the surgeon was his eldest brother. In 1812 he attended lectures of Dr. Hugh on chemistry, and was from an early age interested in the applications of the science in agriculture. For more than half a century he was a prominent figure among scientific agriculturists. He owned for many years a farm adjoining that of the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester (which he had taken a leading part in founding and organising between 1842 and 1845), and here ne conducted many valuable experiments, which led to the introduction of numerous improvements in agricultural machinery. Many visitors, among others Liebig, came at various times to inspect the farm. His endeavour was always to discover how the greatest fertility in land could be secured together with the greatest economy in working expenses. His farm was always open for the inspection of students of the Agricultural College. He was much beloved on account of his benevolence at Cirencester, where he died 5 July 1881.

Lawrence married, 26 May 1818, Lydia, youngest daughter of Devereux Bowly of Chesterton House, Cirencester, by whom he had a son and three daughters.

In the 'Transactions of the Royal Agricultural Society' are several papers by Lawrence. Some of the titles are: 'On Diminishing the Quantity of Roots used in Fattening Cattle.' xv. 488; on 'The Relative Value of Cattle-box Manure and Farmyard Manure.' xviii. 368; on 'Pulping Roots for Cattle Food.' xx. 453; on the 'Management of Clover Layers, the proper distance for Drilling Wheat, and the Ravages of Insects in Pines.' xxii. 447; on the 'Cultivation of Carrots and Cabbages for the Feeding of Stock.' xxiv. 216; on 'Swedes, Mangold, and the Steam Plough.' xxv. 248; 'On the Royal Agricultural College of Cirencester.' 2nd ser. i. 1; and on 'Kohl Rabi.' 2nd ser. i. 219. Besides these essays he published: 1. 'Practical Directions for the Cultivation of Cottage Gardens.' 1831. 2. 'A Letter on Agricultural Education addressed to a Youth who has resolved on Farming as his Future Occupation.' 1851. 3. In 1860 he issued a tract to his labourers full of sound practical advice, 'On the Economy of Food.' 4. Lawrence's best work is his 'Handy Book for Young Farmers.' 1859, in the form of a monthly calendar, with notes and observations. It abounds in sensible hints and economical suggestions, showing a mind well stored with orderly and practical information on the subjects of which it treats.

[Lawrence's Works; Burke's Baronetage; Times, 10 July 1867, 19 July 1881.]

M. G. W.


LAWRENCE or LAURENCE, EDWARD (1623–1695), nonconformist minister, son of William Laurence, was born in 1623 at Moston in Shropshire. He was educated first in the school at Whitchurch in the same county, and thence was admitted as a sizar of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 8 June 1644, matriculated in 1645, proceeded B.A. in 1647-8, and M.A. in 1654. In his college days he 'was studious, a promoter of serious godliness among the young scholars; and was so noted also for his parts and learning, that we would have made him a fellow' (1st letter appended to Vincent, Perfect man, p. 22). After preaching for some little time, 'and with much acceptance' (ib, p. 22), in 1648 he was made vicar of Baschurch in Shropshire, near his native place. Though he had offers of preferment (Lawrence, Christ's Power, dedication), he remained there till 1662, when he was ejected by the Act of Uniformity. At that time he had a wife and several children, and when asked how he intended to support them, his usual reply was that they must all live on Matthew vi. After his ejection he resided with a gentleman in the parish of Baschurch till March 1666, when the Five Miles Act necessitated his removal, and he settled at Tilstock, a village in Whitchurch parish in the same county (2nd letter, Vincent, Perfect Man, p. 23). In February 1667–8 he and his friend Philip Henry [q. v.] were invited to Betley in Staffordshire, where they ventured