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at York, and the chapter had to redeem it. Many or Layton's letters are extant in the 'Cromwell Correspondence' in the Record Office and the Cotton MSS. All are lively and readable; they breathe throughout the spirit of loyalty to the throne characteristic of the Tudor period, but fully display the heartless and unscrupulous character of the writer (cf. Froude, Hist. ii. 310, for a more favourable estimate of Layton).

[Cooper's Athenæ Cantabr.; Dixon's Hist. of the Church of England; Gasquet's Henry VIII and the English Monasteries; Letters and Papers Hen. VIII, ed. Gairdner; State Papers Hen. VIII; Three Chaps. of Suppression Letters (Camden Soc.), ed. Wright; Fuller's Church History; Burnet's Hist. of the Reformation; Speed's Hist.; Le Neve's Fasti; Strype's Annals; Froude's Hist. of Engl.; Narratives of the Reformation (Camden Soc.), ed. Nichols; Wood's Athenæ, ed. Bliss, Pref.; Cotton MS. Cleop. E. iv.]

W. A. J. A.

LEA. [See Lee, Legh, Leigh, and Ley.]

LEACH. [See also Leech.]

LEACH, JAMES (1762–1798), musical composer, was born at Wardle, Rochdale, Lancashire, in 1762. He became a hand-loom weaver, but having studied music in his leisure hours, ultimately devoted himself entirely to the art. He early attained proficiency as a player, and was made a member of the king's band. He gained some distinction both as a teacher and choir-leader, and as a counter-tenor singer took a prominent part in the Westminster Abbey and other musical festivals. He removed about 1795 to Salford, where he died from the effects of a stage-coach accident on 8 Feb. 1798. He was buried in the cemetery of Union Street Wesleyan Chapel, Rochdale, where his grave is marked by a stone on which is cut his short-metre tune 'Egypt,' in G minor.

It is as a composer of psalmody that Leach is remembered. He published 'A New Sett of Hymns and Psalm Tunes.' &c. (London, 1789), containing twenty-two hymn-tunes and two long pieces, with instrumental accompaniment. This was followed by a 'Second Sett of Hymn and Psalm Tunes' (London, n.d., 1794 P), which contains forty-eight tunes and three longer compositions. To an edition of the latter published after his death an advertisement is appended dated 'Manchester, 1798.' soliciting subscriptions towards publishing sundry manuscript anthems, &c., for the benefit of his family. Later impressions of both 'Setts' were printed from the original plates, but without the prefaces. A reprint, under the title of 'Leach's Psalmody.' edited by Newbigging and Butterworth, was issued in 1884 (London, 4to), with a sketch of his life. His tunes were mostly of the florid class popular in his day. They irritate the modern ear because of their erratic rhythmic form. At one time they were widely used both here and in America. Many of them were printed in American collections, notably in 'The David Companion, or the Methodist Standard' (Baltimore, 1810), which contains forty-eight of his pieces. Besides his tunes, Leach's published works include some anthems, and trios for two violins and a bass-viol.

[Life prefixed to edition of his Psalmody as above; Parr's Church of England Psalmody; Grove's Dict. of Music, ii. 108, iv. 698; Brown's Dict. of Musicians; Musical Times, April 1878, p. 226.]

J. C. H.

LEACH, Sir JOHN (1760–1834), master of the rolls, son of Richard Leach, a copper-smith of Bedford, was born in that town on 28 Aug. 1760. After leaving the Bedford grammar school he became a pupil of Sir Robert Taylor the architect, while in his office he is said to have made the working drawings for the erection of Stone Buildings, which are still preserved at Lincoln's Inn (Spilsbury, Lincoln's Inn, 1873, p. 94), and to have designed Howletts, in the parish of Bekesbourne, Kent (Foss, ix. 92). On the recommendation of his old fellow-pupil, Samuel Pepys Cockerell [q. v.], and other friends, Leach abandoned architecture for the law, and was admitted a student of the Middle Temple on 26 Jan. 1785. Having diligently applied himself to the study of conveyancing and equity drafting in the chambers of William Alexander, who afterwards became lord chief baron, he was called to the bar in Hilary term 1790, and joined the home circuit and Surrey sessions. In 1792 he was engaged as counsel in the Seaford election petition, and in 1795 was elected recorder of that Cinque port. Having previously purchased the Pelham interest, he unsuccessfully contested the constituency against Charles Rose Ellis (afterwards Lord Seaford) [q. v.] and Ellis's cousin, George Ellis [q. v.], at the general election in May 1796. In 1800 Leach gave up all common law work, and confined himself to the equity courts, where his able pleadings and terse style of speaking secured him an extensive business. At a by-election in July 1806 he was returned for Seaford, but owing to the prorogation did not take his seat in that parliament. He was again returned at the general election in the following October, and