Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 32.djvu/95

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Lanfranc
Lang
89

containing:

  1. 'Commentaries on the Epistes of St. Paul,’ consisting of short notes, probably used in lectures.
  2. 'Liber de Corpore et Sanguine Domini nostri,' his book against Berengar, written, as is proved by internal evidence, not earlier than 1079, and printed at Basle in 1528, 1551, with Paschasius Radbert in 1540, with works of other authors at Louvain in 1561, and in various early collections.
  3. ‘Annotatiunculæ in nonnullas J. Cassiani collationes,’ merely four short notes.
  4. ‘Decreta pro ordine S. Benedicti,’ printed in Reyner's 'Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia,’ 1626, contains a complete ritual of the Benedictine use in England, with rules for the order; it brought about a revival of discipline (Gesta Abbatum S. Albani, i. 52; Matthew of Westminster, ann. 1071, 1077).
  5. ‘Epistolarum liber,' sixty letters.
  6. 'Oratio in concilio habita,' report of speech on the primacy of Canterbury, an extract from William of Malmesbury's 'Gesta Pontificum,' lib. i. c. 41.
  7. A treatise, ‘De Celanda Confessione,’ of doubtful authorship. Besides these Luc d'Achery printed a short tract, ‘Sermo vel Sententiæ,' on the duties of religious persons, in his ‘Spicilegium,' iv. 227, first edition 1677.

These pieces, with the exception of the ‘Annotatiunculæ’ and the ‘Oratio,’ were reprinted in ‘Maxima Bibliotheca Patrum,’ xviii. 621 sqq., Lyons, 1677. They are all in Migne's ‘Patrologia Lat.’ cl., and were reprinted by Giles in 1844 in his edition of Lanfranc's works, 2 vols. of ‘Patres Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ’ series, including the ‘Chronicon Beccense,’ the ‘Vitæ Abbatum Beccensium,’ and other pieces, together with a work entitled ‘Elucidarium,’ a dialogue between a master and pupil on obscure theological matters, attributed to Lanfranc in a twelth-century copy in the Brit. Mus. MS. Reg. 5 E. vi., but of doubtful authorship (Histoire Littéraire, viii. 200). A oommentary on the Psalms by him and a history of the church of Canterbury in his own time (Eadmer, Historia Novorum, col. 356), which is perhaps the same as book attributed to him on the deeds of William the Conqueror (Histoire Littéraire, viii. 294), are not now known to exist. Other lost works have been attributed to him, in some cases at least erroneously.

[Freeman's Norman Conquest, ii. iii. iv. passim. and William Rufus, i. 1-140 passim, and ii. 359-360, give a full account of Lanfranc's work in England, while his William the Conqueror, pp. 14l-6 (Engl. Statesmen Ser.), contains an excellent sketch of his policy and work, for which see also Stubbs's Const. Hist. i. 281-8, 347. Hook's Life in Archbishops of Cant. ii. 73 sqq. is unsatisfactory; Charma's Lanfranc, Notica Biographue, forms a valuable monograph. Vita Lancfranci, by Milo Crispin, cantor of Boc, written from recollection of Lanfranc's contemporaries, was printed by Giles in his Lanfranci Opp. i. 281 sqq., along with Chron. Beccense, Epistles, and other pieces. See also Letters from Gregory VII in Jaffé's Mon. Greg. pp. 49, 356, 494, 520, Eadmer’s Hist. Nov. cols. 352-61, ed. Migne; William of Jumièges, vi. 9. vii. 26, viii. 2, ed. Duchesne; Brevis Relatio in Giles's Gesta Willelmi, i. 10, and ib. p. 175, Carmen de morte Lanfranci; Orderic. pp. 494, 507, 523, 548, 566, ed. Duchesne; A.-S. Chron. ann. 1070, 1087, 1089. with the Latin Life in App. pp. 386-9 (Rolls Ser.); Flor. Wig. ann. 1074, 1076 (Engl. Hist. Soc.); William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum, cc. 447, 450, 462, 486, 495 (Engl. Hist. Soc.), and Gesta Pontiff. pp. 37-78, 322, 428 (Rolls Ser.); Gervase of Cant. 1. 9-16, for Lanfranc's rebuilding of Christ Church, and 43. 70, ii. 363-8 (Rolls Ser.); Willis's Hist. of Canterbury, pp. 13, 14, 65; Walsingham's Gesta Abbatum S. Albani. i. 46, 47, 52, 58 (Rolls Ser.) For the York side of the dispute with Archbishop Thomas. consult Hugh the Chantor ap. Historians of York, ii 99-101, and T. Stubbs, ib. 357, 358 (Rolls Ser.); for the suit on Pennenden Heath, Anglia Sacra i. 334 sqq.; for the St. Augustine's version of Lanfranc's dealings Thorn's untrustworthy account in Decem Scriptores, cols. 1791-1793; for Bishop of Durham's trial, Dugdale's Monasticon, i. 246 sqq., and vi. 614, 615; for writs sent to Lanfranc as a vicegerent, Liber Eliensis, pp. 256-60 (Anglia. Christ.) Gallia Christiana, xi. 219 sqq.; Labbe's Concilia, xix. 759, 774, 859, 901; Mabillon's Acta SS. O.S.B. v. sqq.; Acta SS. Bolland., May v. 822 sqq.; Wilkins's Concilia, i. 367; Hist. Litt. de France, viii. 197 sqq.; Wright's Biog. Lit. ii. 1-14, are also useful.]

W. H.

LANG, JOHN DUNMORE (1799–1878), writer on Australia, was born at Greenock, Scotland, 25 Aug. 1799, received his education at the school of Largs, Ayrshire, and at the university of Glasgow, Were he remained eight years and obtained the M.A. degree 11 April 1820. He was licensed to preach by the presbyter of Irvine on 1 June 1822, and ordained in September 1822 with s view to his form's church in Sydney New South Wales, in connection with the established church of Scotland. He arrived in Australia in May 1823, and was the first presbyterian minister who regularly officiated in New South Wales. His church, known as the Scots church, was at Church Hill, Sydney from Lord Goderich directing the colonial government to pay 3,500l. towards the establishment of a college in Sydney for the education of young men and of candidates for the ministry, on the condition that