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delivered, for the benefit of his agricultural neighbours at Chorleywood, the first of a series of lectures—the fifth and last of which was given at Christmas 1862—on the 'History of England to the Close of the Reign of Edward II.' They were published as vol. i. in 1869. He had intended to go on with them, and had begun to study the reign of Edward III, when he migrated from Chorleywood to Ashlyns. The interest which he felt in that reign led him to continue his researches, and in 1869 appeared his elaborate and carefully written 'History of the Life and Times of Edward III.' Partly from its close vicinity to Paternoster Row, he threw himself heartily into the movement for the completion and decoration of St. Paul's Cathedral, and acted as chairman of the finance committee appointed to administer the fund raised for that object. His interest in St. Paul's further led him to compose the valuable monograph, published in 1873, 'A History of the Three Cathedrals dedicated to St. Paul in London, with reference chiefly to their Structure, Architecture, and the sources whence the necessary funds were derived.' His latest contributions to literature were an agreeable account of 'Impressions of Madeira,' which appeared in 'Fraser's Magazine' for August 1875, and a paper, left a fragment, on 'Modern Mountaineering, and a History of the Alpine Club,' printed in the 'Alpine Journal' for February 1877. He died 13 Aug. 1877, and was succeeded by his sons C. J. and H. H. Longman. He was noted for his courtesy to men of letters and to his brethren of 'the trade.'

Longman, Thomas (1804-1879), eldest son of Thomas Norton Longman, was born in 1804. He was educated at Glasgow University, and at an early age began his career in the publishing house of Longman. In 1832 he became a partner in it, and in 1842 he succeeded his father as its head. Apart from the ordinary business of the firm, he devoted much attention to the preparation of a sumptuous work, which was produced under his special superintendence, 'The New Testament Illustrated, with Engravings on Wood after Paintings by Fra Angelico, Pietro Perugino, Francesco Francis, Lorenzo di Credi, Fra Bartolommeo, Titian, Raphael, Gaudenzio Ferrari, Danielle da Volterra, and other great Masters, chiefly of the Early Italian School.' The first edition, consisting of 250 copies only, at ten guineas each, was sold on the day of publication. A second and less costly edition was issued in 1864, and reprinted in 1883. He was chairman of the fund raised by 'the trade' in London and the provinces for the relief of the booksellers of Paris during the siege by the Germans in 1870. Of the general operations of the firm while he was its head one of the most notable was the publication of Lord Macaulay's works, especially the 'History of England,' for his share of the profits of the third and fourth volumes of which the author received, and that merely as a payment on account, the famous cheque for 20,000l., dated 13 March 1856 (see Trevelyan, Life of Lord Macaulay, edit. of 1877, ii. 413-14). In 1863 the firm purchased the business and stock of John W. Parker, the publisher of West Strand, London, with which it acquired many valuable or interesting copyrights, among them that of the works of John Stuart Mill and 'Fraser's Magazine.' In 1870 Longman purchased the copyrights of Mr. Disraeli's novels, including 'Lothair.' Thomas Longman died 30 Aug. 1879, and left two sons, T. N. Longman, the present head of the firm, and G. H. Longman. He was the author of a pamphlet, published in 1872, 'Some Observations on Copyright and our Colonies, with special reference to Canada.'

[History of the House of Longman (by the writer of this article) in the Critic for March and April 1860; 'William Longman,' by 'H.R.' (Mr. Henry Reeve), in Fraser's Mag. for October 1877; obituary notices, among them those of William Longman in the Athenæum of 10 Aug. and in the Publishers' Circular of 1 Sept. 1877, and of Thomas Longman in the Athenæum of 6 Sept. and Publishers' Circular of 16 Sept. 1879.]

F. E.

LONGMATE, BARAK (1738–1793), genealogist and heraldic engraver, born in 1738, was son of Barak and Elizabeth Longmate of St. James, Westminster. He engraved some topographical drawings, but was more distinguished as an heraldic engraver. He died on 23 July 1793 in Noel Street, Soho, and was buried on the 27th in Marylebone churchyard (Gent. Mag. 1793, pt. ii. p. 679). By his wife Elizabeth (d. 178l) he had a son Barak. His small but valuable library, and a large collection of heraldic manuscripts, fetched at auction on 6 and 7 March 1794 only 235l. 9s. 9d.

Longmate published an edition (the fifth) of Collins's 'Peerage,' 8 vols. 8vo, London, 1779, and a 'Supplement' in 1784. Of this work he left materials for a new edition. He also edited the 'Pocket Peerage of England, Scotland, and Ireland,' 12mo, London, 1788 (new edition, 1790). For Richard Joseph Sulivan's 'Thoughts on the Early Ages of the Irish Nation and History,' 4to, 1789, he engraved an elaborate genealogical plate, entitled 'A Genealogical History of the Family of O'Sullivan More from Duach