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Earl Simon (Bémont, Simon de Montfort, p. 256). There can be no doubt that Llywelyn thus hoped to revive the Montfort party and policy, and so to provide Edward with an opposition serious enough at home to give him no leisure to deal with the Prince of Wales.

At the same time Llywelyn sought to strengthen his position in the principality by the subjugation or the ejection of rival and over-powerful chieftains. In the spring of 1274 he attacked Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn, upbraiding him in a personal interview for his deceit and treachery, and taking from him Arwystli and those parts of Cyveiliog beyond the Dovey. Moreover, he took Owain, Gruffydd's eldest son, as a hostage into Gwynedd. He also quarrelled anew with his brother Davydd, who now or a year later formed a plot against him [see Davydd III and Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn].

Edward I came back to England on 2 Aug. 1274. Llywelyn did not appear at his coronation on 19 Aug. Accordingly, in November a peremptory mandate was issued summoning him to perform his long-delayed homage at Shrewsbury, and pay to the king the six thousand marks which he owed him (Fœdera, i. 518, 519), but the royal order produced no effect. About the same time Llywelyn completed the degradation of Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn, whose whole territory he subdued with little opposition, forcing Gruffydd to take refuge in England (Brut y Tywysogion, p. 361), whither Davydd fled soon afterwards. In 1275 the war extended to South Wales, where Llywelyn's followers from the vale of Towy fought fiercely against the men of Kidwelly, the tenants of Earl Edmund of Lancaster (Annales Cambriæ, p. 104). Open war was now waged all along the marches, in the course of which Llywelyn's troops gained several successes. Disgusted at Llywelyn's obstinacy, Edward I went early in September to Chester, whence he issued on 10 Sept. a fresh summons to the Welsh prince to perform homage and fealty (Fœdera, i. 528). Llywelyn thereupon gathered together a great meeting of the Welsh chieftains. By the 'general consent' of all the 'barons of Wales,' it was agreed that Llywelyn should not go to the king, because he harboured the prince's fugitives, namely, Davydd and Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn (Brut y Tywysogion, p. 363). Moreover, Llywelyn pleaded the fate of his fathers as a proof that his person would be in danger were he to obey the summons of his overlord (Worcester Annals, p. 468). 'On that account the king returned to England in anger, and Llywelyn returned to Wales.'

About the end of 1275 Llywelyn's marriage negotiations were concluded, and Amaury de Montfort, an ecclesiastic, and the least violent of the sons of Earl Simon, had sailed from France to bring his sister Eleanor to her destined husband. But four Bristol ships were ordered to intercept them, and just before Christmas Edward thus succeeded in capturing off the Scilly Islands the two vessels with Amaury and Eleanor on board (Ann. Osney, and Wykes, pp. 266-7). Amaury was imprisoned at Corfe, while Eleanor was sent to Windsor, and detained in honourable confinement at the court of her aunt, the queen (Green, Princesses of England, ii. 163). Llywelyn offered large sums of money to the king for the release of his promised bride, but declined Edward's terms, comprising unconditional homage, the restoration of the lands which he had usurped, and the rebuilding of the castles which he had destroyed (Waverley Annals, p. 386).

In the autumn of 1276 Edward formally declared war against his recalcitrant vassal (Fœdera, i. 535-6). In November, Roger Mortimer was appointed the king's captain against the Welsh (ib. i. 537), and in December summonses were issued to the military tenants of the crown to meet at Worcester by midsummer 1277 to fight against the Welsh (ib. i. 538). Llywelyn continued some show of negotiations, obtaining in January 1277 safe-conducts for fresh messengers to treat with the king (ib. i. 541). Meanwhile Llywelyn left no stone unturned. He wrote to the pope complaining of the imprisonment of his bride, and denouncing the aggressions of the English (Add. MS. 15363, quoted in Pauli, Geschichte von England, iv. 21). But the church was not on his side. In February the Archbishop of Canterbury issued formal orders for his excommunication (Fœdera, p. 541). Meanwhile Edward divided the Welsh forces in South Wales by a treaty of peace with Rhys ab Maredudd (ib. i. 542). From Epiphany-tide till Whitsuntide a strong English force kept Llywelyn in check until the date arranged for the great invasion. Soon after Easter Edward left London. By moving the exchequer and king's bench to Shrewsbury he showed that he projected a long and determined campaign.

Early in August 1277 the great Welsh invasion began. Three formidable armies were poured over the frontier. Edward himself marched at the head of the northern army, whose starting-point was Chester, Davydd, the prince's brother, serving among its leaders. More to the south, Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, operated from Shrewsbury and Montgo-