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Llywelyn
Llywelyn
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ham himself set out for Snowdon, though Edward had given him no encouragement. He there spent three days with Llywelyn. His offer was, that if Llywelyn completely submitted to the king, and abandoned his principality, Edward would allow him lands worth 1,000l. a year in some English county, take charge of his infant daughter, and even contemplate the prospect ot allowing any legitimate male heir born to him to succeed to Snowdon. The only alternative was his complete and absolute ruin.

On 11 Nov. Llywelyn professed his willingness to submit, but not on such impossible terms. Edward, however, would only accept unconditional surrender. This ended the negotiations. The passes of Snowdon were now closely beset. Llywelyn, afraid that with the winter season he should again be forced to surrender as in 1277, resolved to escape from Snowdon, and try his fortune in more fruitful lands. Moreover, his presence was urgently needed in the south, where Gloucester and Edmund Mortimer had won a great victory at Llandeilo. Leaving Davydd and most of his followers, Llywelyn succeeded in eluding the vigilance of the besiegers. Soon after, at the head of a small force, he devastated Ceredigion and Ystradtowi, and thence, journeying westwards, he vigorously attacked the middle marches (Eulogium Historiarum, iii. 146). The Welsh tenants of the Mortimers began to join him, but he was no match for the disciplined forces of the marchers. The final action was soon fought, but its place and details are very variously given by the chroniclers. Llywelyn was attacked by Edmund Mortimer somewhere in Mid-Wales, near the upper waters of the Severn, and not far from Builth and Cwmhir. He was slain on 11 Dec. by one Adam de Frankton, as he hurried up to join in a skirmish which was going on between his men and the followers of the Mortimers. The Welsh accounts speak of a treacherous appointment to which he came alone and unarmed, whereupon he was fallen upon and slain (Stephens, Literature of the Kymry, p. 368-9). A letter, couched in vague and mysterious language, was found on his body, and forwarded to the king (Fœdera, i. 619). His mutilated corpse was buried in consecrated ground at Cwmhir, but his head was sent to London, where it was received with great rejoicings by the citizens. It was finally crowned with ivy, in mockery of his pretensions to kingship, and was fixed on a pole upon the Tower (Cotton, p. 163; Worcester Annals, p. 486). Llywelyn's coronet was offered up by Alphonso, Edward's eldest son, at the shrine of St. Edward in Westminster Abbey (Worcester Annals, p. 490).

As the last champion of Welsh liberty, Llywelyn was greatly eulogised by the vernacular poets of his country. Elegies were written on him by Bleddyn Vardd (Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Gee's reprint, p. 253) and by Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch (ib. p. 268). This latter is translated in Stephens's 'Literature of the Kymry,' pp. 370 sq. Llywelyn's praises were also celebrated in an ode by Llygad Gwr (ib. p. 239), of which Stephens (pp. 346—54) also gives an English version (cf. Evans, Specimens of Ancient Welsh Poetry, pp. 36-41, ed. Llanidloes). The qualities for which the bards especially commend him are his generosity and openhandedness, especially to the poets. 'I never return empty-handed from the north,' wrote Llygad Gwr (Stephens, p. 346). Bleddyn Vardd describes him as 'the most reckless of givers,' and the 'freest distributor of garments.' That he was brave, active, and strenuous, his whole life abundantly testifies. He was, perhaps, better able to conceive than to carry out an elaborate policy; but his rough martial virtues and vigorous character make him appear a hero beside the manifold treacheries and greedy self-seeking of his brother Davydd.

[Annales Cambriæ, Brut y Tywysogion, Annales Monastici, Rishanger, Flores Historiarum, Matthew Paris's Hist. Major, Registrum Epistolarum J. Peckham, all in Rolls Ser.; Mr. Martin's Preface to the second volume of Peckham's Letters largely deals with Llywelyn; Trivet and Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Rymer's Fœdera, vol. i. Record ed.; Rotulus Walliæ, privately printed by Sir T. Phillips; Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales; Stephens's Literature of the Kymry; Y Cymmrodor, ix. 210-19; Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii.; Pauli's Geschichte von England, vol. iv.; Seeley's Hist. of Edward I; Pearson's Hist. of England, vol. ii.; Bémont's Simon de Montfort; Owen and Blakeway's Hist. of Shrewsbury, i. 120-9; Eyton's Shropshire. A short biography of Eleanor Montfort is given in Mrs. Green's Princesses of England, ii. 160-9.]

T. F. T.

LLYWELYN ab RHYS, commonly called Llywelyn Bren (d. 1317), Welsh rebel, was a man of large possessions and great influence in Glamorgan, where he held lands in Senghenydd and Miscyn (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1327-30, p. 39). The Earls of Gloucester were lords of the Glamorganshire palatinate, and were accustomed to rule their dominions with the help of the local lords, whether Welsh or English. Llywelyn therefore held a high office under Gilbert of Clare (1291-1314) [q. v.], the last Earl of Gloucester of