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Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 34.djvu/37

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Locke
Locke
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books. He had attended some of his friends as a physician. He made transcriptions of some of Sydenham's notes (published as 'Anecdota Sydenhamiana,' by Dr. Greenhill, in 1845; see Fox Bourne, i. 454), and had been preparing his 'Treatise on Government' in 1681 or 1682. The growing suspicions, however, determined him to make his escape, and he left England in the autumn of 1683. He was soon in Holland, if he did not go thither directly, and was supposed, according to Lady Masham, to be the author of some pamphlets sent thence to England. On 6 Nov. 1684 Sunderland desired John Fell (1625-1686) [q. v.], the dean of Christ Church, to expel Locke from his studentship. Fell replied that although Locke had been closely watched 'for divers years,' no one in the college had heard him speak a word for or against the government. There was not, he said, in the world 'such a master of taciturnity and passion.' As Locke was absent on account of health, and, 'as holding a physician's place,' not subject to the ordinary regulations, he could only summon him to return, and on refusal expel him for contumacy. The letter only produced a peremptory order (11 Nov. 1684) for Locke's expulsion, and Fell reported on the 16th that it had been obeyed.

Locke by January 1684 was at Amsterdam, where he renewed an acquaintance made in Paris with Peter Guenellon, a physician of eminence. After a visit to Leyden and elsewhere in the autumn he returned to Amsterdam to find Fell's summons. He soon gave up a first intention of obeying the summons, and passed some months at Utrecht. The move was due to his anxiety to avoid any appearance of complicity in Monmouth's insurrection. (The Locke mentioned in the confession of Forde Grey [q. v.] of Werk as contributing to Monmouth's expenses was an anabaptist, Nicholas Lock or Locke; see Macaulay, History, i. 546.) The English envoy to Holland on 17 May 1685 demanded the extradition of eighty-four plotters, including Locke. Locke returned from Utrecht to live in concealment at Amsterdam, in the house of Guenellon's father-in-law, Dr. Keen. Meanwhile William Penn and Lord Pembroke applied to James II, who declared his disbelief in the reports against Locke, and offered to receive him. Locke, however, declined to be pardoned, as he had committed no crime (Le Clerc),and after a short visit to Cleve, where an offered asylum proved unsatisfactory, returned to Amsterdam, and lived in Keen's house as 'Dr. Van der Linden.' A fresh demand in May 1686 for the surrender of Monmouth's accomplices did not include Locke's name. Locke was now able to give up his disguise, but stayed at Keen's house, making another visit to Utrecht in the last part of 1686, till in February 1687 he settled at Rotterdam. Here he was near the Hague, and was intimate with Mordaunt, afterwards Earl of Peterborough, William's chief adviser upon English affairs, He became known to William and Mary, who learnt to value him as he deserved. At Rottterdam he lived with the quaker merchant, Benjamin Furly [q. v.]

Locke was welcomed by a distinguished literary circle in Holland, and actively employed himself in writing. He was president of a little club, called 'The Lantern,' which met at Furly's house to drink 'mum' and discuss philosophy. His chief friends were at, Amsterdam. He was especially intimate with Limborch, remonstrant professor at Amsterdam, and the author of 'Theologia Christiana' and 'History of the Inquisition.' They sympathised upon religious questions, and kept up an affectionate correspondence during Locke's life. He also became known to Le Clerc, to whom Limborch introduced him in the winter of 1685-1686. Locke had been interested in Le Clerc's answer to the Père Simon upon Old Testament criticism. Locke contributed some brief papers, including his well-known plan of a commonplace book, to Le Clerc's new journal, the 'Bibliothèque Universelle.' The 'Essay,' which he had apparently begun about 1671 (King, Life of Locke, i. 10); had been taken up at intervals. He had worked upon it in France, and in 1679 spoke of it to Thoynard as 'completed' (Fox Bourne, ii. 97). This was probably a premature statement. Now, however, he brought it into order, and prepared an epitome which appeared in the 'Bibliothèque Universelle' for January 1687-8 as 'Extrait d'un libre Anglais, qui n'est pas encore publié, intitulé, Essai Philosophique concernant l'entendement, où l'on montre quelle est l'étendue de nos connoissances certaines et la manière dont nous y parvenons; communiqué par M. Locke.' Some copies, according to Le Clerc, were separately printed.

Upon the revolution Locke returned to England in company with Mary and Lady Mordaunt, sending a most affectionate farewell to Limborch. He landed at Greenwich 12 Feb. 1688-9. On 20 Feb. William III offered, through Mordaunt, to send Locke on a mission to the elector of Brandenburg. Locke declined this and other offers without hesitation on the ground of insufficient health. He consented, however, to become commissioner of appeals, with 200l. a year, abandoning his claims for his salary as secre-